Table of contents:

Pear Russian Beauty: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Pear Russian Beauty: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Pear Russian Beauty: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

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Pear Russian beauty: the choice of gardeners

Pear Russian beauty
Pear Russian beauty

Pear Russian beauty is also known to gardeners under the name Beauty Chernenko. This is an unpretentious variety that feels great in the central part of our country.

Content

  • 1 Description of the variety Russian beauty and photo of the fruit

    1.1 Table: advantages and disadvantages

  • 2 How to plant a pear

    2.1 Video: how to plant a pear correctly

  • 3 Care

    • 3.1 Pruning a tree in the first years after planting and beyond
    • 3.2 Watering
    • 3.3 Fertilizers
    • 3.4 Preparing for winter
  • 4 Diseases and pests of the variety

    • 4.1 Table: problems with the pear and their solutions
    • 4.2 The most common pests and diseases of pears in the photo
  • 5 Harvesting and storage
  • 6 Reviews of gardeners

Description of the variety Russian beauty and photo of fruits

Pear Russian beauty was bred for central Russia. This variety does not tolerate harsh winters, so even mature trees feel uncomfortable already in the north of the Moscow region. You should not plant a pear in the southern regions, since a dry summer and a lack of watering can spoil the taste of the fruit: the skin of the pear will become rough and bitter.

Pear varieties Russian beauty
Pear varieties Russian beauty

The fruits of the Russian beauty ripen together

The tree of the Russian beauty is tall, 5–6 m in height. This sometimes makes it difficult to care for the pear and harvest. The crown is pyramidal in shape, thin. The leaves are large, dark green, sharply pointed towards the tip. The trunk and branches of the tree are brown, smooth, even, growing upwards. The pear blooms in mid-May, and the harvest bears in early September. Thus, the Russian beauty is an early autumn variety.

The fruit of the Russian beauty
The fruit of the Russian beauty

Sometimes the pears of the Russian beauty reach 300 g

The Russian beauty begins to bear fruit from 6-7 years after planting and reaches full yield in 3-4 years. About 60 kg of fruit can be removed from an adult tree. The mass of pears is from 160 to 300 g. The pulp of the Russian beauty is juicy, aromatic, slightly oily, sweet to taste with a slight sourness.

Table: advantages and disadvantages

pros Minuses
Delicious and beautiful fruits Low frost resistance (afraid of frost below -25 o C)
Self-fertility Drought hard
Immune to scab and fruit rot Late onset of fruiting
Large tree size

How to plant a pear

The Russian beauty is a self-fertile variety and does not require additional pollination. But, according to the observations of gardeners, a tree bears fruit best of all if the pears Lada Amurskaya, Moskvichka or Lyubimitsa Yakovleva grow nearby. These varieties bloom and bear fruit at approximately the same time, which allows them to pollinate each other.

Russian beauty with fruits
Russian beauty with fruits

In the presence of pollinators, the tree of the Russian beauty gives the maximum yield

A place for a young pear should be sunny, well-lit, protected from the wind, at least 4 m away from walls and high fences and at least 3–3.5 m away from other trees on the site. and also transmit various diseases. The groundwater level at the site should be no higher than 2 m for the pear to feel comfortable. Otherwise, before planting, build an artificial embankment for the seedling 50–70 cm high, and carefully drain the bottom of the planting pit with large pebbles (a layer of at least 5 cm). The soil for the pear should be neutral acidity (pH 5.7–6).

Pear tree
Pear tree

Pear needs a sunny, wind-protected place

It is best to plant an annual or biennial tree. The tree should look healthy, have flexible stem and branches, smooth bark, developed root system without rotten or dried branches of at least 3 main branches.

The plant can be planted both in autumn (in October) and in spring (in April), when the soil warms up enough. Night temperature should be at least 3-5 of the C for 5-7 days. A planting hole for a young tree should be prepared in the fall at least 10 days before planting. For this you need:

  1. Dig a hole 80 cm in diameter and 80–100 cm deep.
  2. The top soil layer (20 cm) is mixed with 20 kg of ready-made organic fertilizer (compost, humus), 1 kg of wood ash, 100 g of potassium sulfate and 350 g of superphosphate.
  3. Put the resulting mixture on the bottom of the pit with a slide.
  4. Close the pit on top with a thick film so that moisture does not penetrate into it.
Pit preparation
Pit preparation

The hole must be deep enough to accommodate the roots freely

Before planting, you need to prepare the tree itself:

  1. At the sapling, the most powerful roots are cut by 10-12 cm, the top is completely cut off. Thus, the tree becomes just a straight stick without branches 70 cm high.
  2. The roots of the seedling are placed in a bucket of warm water for 1 hour.
  3. A "chatterbox" is prepared: the soil dug out of the pit is mixed with ash in equal proportions and diluted with water to a creamy consistency. The roots are dipped in this mixture.

Planting pears should be done as follows:

  1. Install a support stake in the pit with a height of about 120-150 cm at a distance of 3-5 cm from the center.
  2. If necessary, correct the soil at the bottom of the pit so that it is formed in the form of a mound.
  3. Place the seedling in the center of the mound so that the root collar of the plant is 5–7 cm above the ground.
  4. Distribute pear roots.
  5. Layer-by-layer ramming, fill the hole with earth.
  6. Build a ditch 6–7 cm deep along the edge of the hole and pour 20 liters of water over the tree.
  7. Tie the seedling to the support stake with elastic material, do not use wire, as this can damage the tree.
  8. Mulch the trunk circle with sawdust or peat.
Planting pears
Planting pears

Mulching retains moisture in the soil for a long time

Video: how to plant a pear correctly

Care

The Russian beauty is relatively unpretentious in care, but it is important to know how to help the tree grow correctly so that the pear spends all its strength on a sweet and bountiful harvest.

Pruning a tree in the first years after planting and beyond

Russian beauty is a vigorous pear variety. The tree requires regular crown-forming and thinning pruning. It will help to form a tree crown that is easy to care for, and will also increase the amount of light falling on ripening fruits, which has a positive effect on the quality of the crop. It is necessary to prune from the second year of the plant's life, in the spring before bud break (around April).

  1. It is necessary to choose 3-4 of the strongest shoots, shorten them by 30%, cut out all the rest. The main conductor is shortened by 20-25 cm.
  2. The next year, it is worth repeating the procedure, forming the second tier of the crown from 2-3 branches. All competing shoots are removed and branches are cut 20-25% of their length.
  3. In the fourth year of growth, the third tier of branches is formed from one or two shoots. In this case, the main conductor can be cut to zero, since the Russian beauty grows into a very tall tree, which sometimes prevents it from developing correctly.
Pruning pears in the early years of the tree's life
Pruning pears in the early years of the tree's life

In the first few years, the tree needs help in the correct formation of the crown.

Thinning pruning is the removal of thickening branches. It starts from the fifth year of tree growth. With this procedure, it is necessary to remove all branches growing horizontally upwards, and also thin out some of the young branches to lighten the crown. From 8-10 years of age, a pear needs rejuvenating pruning: gardeners recommend removing the ends of skeletal branches by 25-30%, and also cutting off the main conductor by 35-40%. The pear will become lower, more wind-resistant and easier to maintain.

Pruning pear
Pruning pear

You can completely remove the top of the crown to stop growth and thinning the crown

Crown formation
Crown formation

Young branches are pulled to the ground at the right angle using twine

The pear also requires sanitary pruning, which is carried out at the end of October. Do not delay this procedure too much, so that the plant has 2-3 weeks before frost to recuperate. With sanitary pruning, all dry, damaged, crooked and deformed branches are removed from the tree, which are then burned.

Processing slices with var
Processing slices with var

Garden var clogs the slices, preventing infection

Watering

The pear does not tolerate excess moisture, which can lead to root rot. But the Russian beauty also does not like drought. Therefore, even an adult tree must be watered several times a season with 30-40 liters of water. It is recommended to divide a portion of liquid into two parts, moisturizing the pear in the morning and in the evening.

Irrigation scheme:

  1. The first mandatory seasonal watering must be done before the pear blossoms, in late April or early May.
  2. The second watering is carried out after flowering, it promotes the formation of healthy ovaries.
  3. Further, during the summer, from 2 to 4 waterings are carried out, focusing on climatic and weather conditions.
  4. The last autumn watering for pears is moisture-charging. It aids autumn root growth, keeps the soil warm and prevents the tree from drying out in winter. For the middle and northern zones of gardening, it is carried out in late September or early October.

Young plants are watered much more often. In the first year after planting a seedling, he needs 10-15 liters of water every week. The next 3-5 years before stable fruiting, the tree should receive 20-25 liters of water every 2-3 weeks. After watering, the ground must be loosened and the trunk circle must be mulched in order to retain moisture in the ground.

Watering pears
Watering pears

Sprinkling impregnates the entire trunk circle with moisture

Fertilizers

Pear requires a lot of nutrients to form a crop. Therefore, the pear is fertilized with organic and mineral substances. Organics are applied under the tree in the fall once every 3-4 years during digging (25-30 kg for each adult tree). Compost, manure, humus or dung are suitable fertilizers. Organic fertilizers enrich the soil and accelerate the absorption of mineral fertilizers by the tree.

Fertilizer for pears
Fertilizer for pears

Organic fertilizers can be applied in liquid form or when digging

Mineral fertilizers are applied under the pear in dry or dissolved form.

  1. Before flowering, the tree must be fertilized with 60 g of nitrate or 120 g of carbamide.
  2. After flowering, the tree should be sprayed with a 5% urea solution. Such foliar feeding will be quickly absorbed and will help the pear to grow.
  3. In autumn, 120 g of superphosphate and 60 g of potassium chloride are introduced into the soil from mineral fertilizers.

Additionally, in the fall, the tree can be fertilized with 700 g of wood ash, and in the spring, sow green manure plants (buckwheat, oats, phacelia, etc.) along the outer part of the trunk circle, which will saturate the soil with nitrogen, and later become natural mulch.

Green manure plants
Green manure plants

Siderate plants are planted in a near-stem circle

Preparing for winter

The Russian beauty is afraid of frosts below -25 o C, so the tree needs special preparation for the winter season.

  1. Remove all leaves, weeds, twigs and possible debris from under the pear.
  2. Dig up the ground of the trunk circle to kill the wintering insects.
  3. Mulch the pear with a high layer (minimum 15–20 cm) of sawdust or peat. Do not forget to remove the mulch in time in the spring to prevent root rotting.

    Preparation for wintering pear
    Preparation for wintering pear

    Peat mulch keeps tree roots from freezing

  4. Treat the trunk and branches of the first tier with a solution of the following composition: 2 kg of lime, 1 kg of powder clay, 300 g of copper sulfate, 7 liters of water. For young trees under 4 years old, it is worth taking 10-12 liters of water so as not to burn the trunk. This mixture will protect the pear from pests, rodents and additionally strengthen the bark.

    Whitewashing pear
    Whitewashing pear

    Whitewashing protects the tree from pests, rodents and frost

  5. Cover the trunk with spruce branches or burlap. For young trees, you can fix the material on top with a clay-manure solution (the components for preparing the mixture are taken in equal proportions).
  6. When snow falls, it must be shaken off the branches so that they do not break, and a snow cushion 40-50 cm high should be created under the pear.

If you follow all these rules for preparing a tree for winter, your pear will more easily endure low temperatures and wake up faster in spring.

Diseases and pests of the variety

The Russian beauty has good immunity to fruit rot and scab, but it is prone to some other diseases. In addition, pests can attack the tree, so it is worth knowing how to quickly diagnose the problem and cure the pear.

Table: Pear problems and solutions

Disease or pest Diagnostics Treatment and prevention
Powdery mildew Whitish bloom on ovaries, young leaves and shoots, which darkens over time. The pear is sprayed with Baktofit 4 times a season with an interval of 10-14 days and treated with Kuprosil before flowering, after flowering, and 2 times during the summer with intervals of 14 days.
Brown spot Dark brown spots on leaves that quickly spread through the tree. In the spring, before flowering, the tree is sprayed with a 3% Bordeaux mixture. As a preventive measure, it is worth carefully performing the autumn digging of the soil.
Black cancer Dark cracking lesions on the trunk and branches of the tree. The damaged parts must be removed with a metal crack, treated three times with a 2% solution of copper sulfate, and then covered with garden varnish.
Pear Copper Buds, buds and shoots are covered with a sticky light coating. When forming buds, the tree is treated with Fufanon. In the fall, as a preventive measure, you need to remove the leaves from under the tree and dig up the trunk circle.
Fruit moth Pears fall prematurely, and inside they are eaten by pest larvae. Processing the tree before and after flowering with Iskra-M, as well as 3-4 weeks before harvesting with Iskra-D. Thorough digging of the soil in the fall and collection of fallen fruits.

The most common pests and diseases of pears in the photo

Powdery mildew
Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew spreads especially strongly in wet weather

Black cancer
Black cancer

If a tree is damaged by black cancer more than 60%, it must be removed from the site and burned

Brown spot
Brown spot

Brown spot does not affect fruits, but strongly weakens the tree

Pear Copper
Pear Copper

The first sign of a sucker is a sticky coating on buds and young shoots.

Moth larva
Moth larva

The moth is capable of destroying a significant part of the crop

Harvesting and storage

Russian beauty is a table variety. Basically, its fruits are used for fresh food. They ripen in September, but they can be harvested at the end of August, when the fruits have turned yellow, but have not yet acquired a strong red hue on the sides. The fruits harvested a little earlier will ripen and will be stored longer.

Pears should be removed from the tree in sunny, dry weather. Try not to damage the stalks when harvesting: together with them, the fruits can be stored for up to 2 months at a temperature of 1-3 o in a refrigerator or cellar.

pear fruit Russian beauty
pear fruit Russian beauty

Only whole pears without visible damage are subject to long-term storage.

Apart from being eaten fresh, pears are excellent for canning. Delicious preserves, jams, compotes, candied fruits and marshmallows are made from the Russian beauty. For processing, it is better to take firm, dense, slightly unripe pears. In this case, during heat treatment, the fruits do not lose their sweetness and elasticity. But for drying, the Russian beauty is not suitable.

Gardeners reviews

Russian beauty is a beautiful and tasty pear. It is ideal for a large garden in central Russia: it will delight you with sweet fruits and unpretentious care.

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