Table of contents:
- Talgar beauty - a generous gift from Kazakhstan
- Description of the variety
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Landing features
- Tree care
- Pests - table
- Collection, storage and use of crops
Video: Pear Talgar Beauty: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Talgar beauty - a generous gift from Kazakhstan
Have you decided to plant a pear? Take your time - there are many varieties, and they behave differently in different climatic and soil conditions. Some trees are capricious and require constant care, while others, on the contrary, are unpretentious. These include the Talgar beauty variety.
1 Variety description
1.1 Video about the Talgar beauty
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages
3 Landing features
- 3.1 Step by step planting process:
- 3.2 Planting pears on video
4 Tree care
- 4.1 Watering
- 4.2 Pruning and shaping the crown
4.3 Top dressing
4.3.1 How to fertilize a pear - video
5 Pests - table
- 5.1 Pests of pears in the photo
- 5.2 Diseases
- 6 Collection, storage and use of crops
- 7 Reviews
Description of the variety
Pear variety Talgarskaya krasavitsa was obtained in Kazakhstan on the basis of Lesnaya krasavitsa varieties. In the Russian Federation, this variety is widespread in Kabardino-Balkaria, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories.
This is a variety of autumn ripening period. The trees are medium in size. The wide-pyramidal crown has medium thickening, the branches are hanging. The color of the bark of the trunk and main branches is gray, the shoots are brown. The buds are large, the leaves are also large, smooth, dark green, with long petioles. Blooms in medium terms. Ovaries most often appear on ringlets. For the Talgar beauty, pollinators are needed - conference pears, Goverla, Kucheryanka, Lyubimitsa Klappa.
Pear Talagarskaya beauty - medium-sized tree
Fruits are rather large, elongated, on average 160–170 g, and pears weighing 250 g are also found. The skin is not thick, shiny and smooth, mostly yellow-green, with a bright red blush on the sunny side. The pulp of the fruit is white with a creamy shade, rather dense, fine-grained, very juicy and crispy.
The peculiarity of the variety is the high "wind resistance" of the fruits - even in ripe state, they do not crumble with sufficiently strong gusts of wind
The fruits of the Talagar beauty are very tightly held on the branch
The variety is relatively fast-growing: regular fruiting begins at 4-5 years, and the first 3-4 fruits may appear as early as 2-3 years of the tree's life. The yield of the Talgar beauty is high (80–95 kg from 1 tree, sometimes up to 150 kg), bears fruit annually. The trees are very resistant to frost (tolerates frosts down to -34 degrees), droughts, as well as pests and fungal diseases. It does not require special care. It is well grafted on quince.
Video about the Talgar beauty
Advantages and disadvantages
Any variety has its own advantages and disadvantages. The Talgar beauty, perhaps, still has more advantages. For some reason, sometimes one of its shortcomings is called crispy flesh, although many people like it.
- high drought and frost resistance;
- immunity to scab and other fungal diseases;
- longevity and high productivity;
- unpretentiousness to care and growing conditions;
- beautiful appearance and pleasant taste of the fruit;
- good storage of crops, stability during transportation.
The disadvantage is the darkening of the pulp when picked late.
When choosing a place for planting, remember that the Talgar beauty is not too demanding on growing conditions, although, like all pears, it prefers sunny places. She does not need protection from the wind, since the fruits of this variety are very resistant to shedding.
Pear loves a sunny place
If you are not going to plant immediately, protect the seedling from drying out. To do this, their root system must be moistened and wrapped in burlap or polyethylene, the existing leaves must be removed. If the seedlings begin to dry up during transportation, they are placed in water for 24–48 hours to restore viability, and not only the roots, but also the stem are immersed in water. Having delivered the seedlings to the site, dig them in right away, even if the planting is scheduled for the next few hours. Before this, the seedlings are examined and any broken or damaged roots and branches are cut off with a pruner or a garden knife. The cut at the roots should "look" down, so it will come into contact with the soil. In the garden, pear trees are placed at a distance of at least three meters from each other.
A pear seedling requires a pit 1–1.5 m in diameter and 0.6–0.7 m deep. In lowlands and for dense soils, do not dig a hole deeper than 0.4 m so that water does not accumulate in it. It is best to prepare the hole in early September (regardless of whether you are going to plant in autumn or spring) and immediately fill it with a mixture of soil and fertilizers - this will speed up the onset of the fruiting pore and increase the yield. Take soil only from the surface layer, if there is not enough soil, add it from the rows.
To support the seedling, drive a 130–150 cm long stake into the bottom of the hole to a depth of 12–15 cm. Make sure it does not reach the lower branch of the seedling. Then add a mixture of soil and fertilizers (mineral and organic).
If the pit fills up 5-6 months before planting, apply any organic matter (excluding fresh manure). If less than 1 month is left before planting, take compost or humus (3-4 buckets), peat (6-10 buckets) or rotted manure (25-30 kg). When using peat, it must first be composted with small volumes of rapidly decomposing organic matter (slurry, faeces). From mineral fertilizers, potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen must be added. Nitrogen fertilizers promote growth (at a dose of 70–100 g). Superphosphate (1 kg) can be used for phosphorus enrichment. When planting on acidic soils, take 2 kg of a mixture of 1 part of superphosphate with 2 parts of phosphorite flour (dose per tree). Potassium is introduced in the form of wood ash (about 1 kg), potassium chloride (140-150 g) or potassium sulfate (250-300 g).Before adding, you can mix them with ground limestone or lime (in a 1: 1 ratio).
The landing pit is prepared in advance
It is also good to add lime in the form of ground dolomite or limestone (0.7–1 kg). When applied simultaneously with ash, the amount of lime is reduced by 1.5–2 times. On sandy soils, dolomite or dolomitized lime enriched with magnesium is added.
Fill the soil mixed with fertilizers into the hole 2/3 of its depth and cover it with a layer of earth on top.
Planting pears should be done in late September - early October (but no later than 20–25 days before the soil freezes) or in early spring - until mid-May (after snowmelt). In the middle lane, spring planting usually gives a better result than autumn planting. In the southern regions, it can be planted in the fall.
Step-by-step planting process:
- Before planting, the roots of the tree are dipped in liquid clay (or soil solution). Just make sure that the clay does not dry out on the roots - it will do harm instead of benefit.
- An earthen mound is poured to the stake driven into the center of the pit. A seedling with straightened roots is placed on it close to the stake so that the root collar remains 4–7 cm above the soil level. This can be determined using a planting board. It is more convenient to plant together: one person places the tree at the required height and straightens the roots, the second pours loose soil. In this case, the seedling must be shaken several times, then it is better to fill all the gaps between the roots with soil.
- A roller is poured around the tree, and a depression is made in the middle for watering. The roll diameter is equal to the size of the pit.
- The seedling is watered (10–20 liters of water), even when it rains. When moisture is absorbed into the ground, mulching is carried out with humus or peat (18–20 kg per tree).
- The seedling is tied to a stake, but not too tightly, since then it cannot settle with the soil, and the roots may be exposed. After the final subsidence of the soil, the tree is firmly attracted to the stake to provide support in the winds.
After planting, the root collar should be 5 - 7 cm above the soil level
If you plant a seedling too high, it will expose its roots. In this case, they need to be covered with earth and the tree will begin to actively grow.
Planting pears on video
High efficiency of irrigation is achieved with the right combination of water-charging irrigation with vegetation irrigation. Moisture-charging irrigation allows you to start vegetative irrigation two weeks later.
Usually fruit trees are watered 3-5 times a year: the first watering is carried out before or after flowering; 2nd - before the ovary falls off (June); 3rd - 2-3 weeks before the ripening of summer apples; the latter is in mid-September to ensure autumn root growth, or later, in November, for moisture recharge.
Approximate watering rates:
- for sandy loam soils 4–4.5 buckets per 1 m 2,
- for loamy - 6–7 buckets per 1 m 2;
- for clayey - 8-9 buckets per 1 m 2;
- water charging irrigation - 8-10 buckets per 1 m 2.
For watering fruit trees, it is recommended to use temporary shallow (depth 13–15 cm) furrows. Two furrows are drawn near the tree: 1st - at a distance of 0.8-1 m from the trunk, 2nd - at 0.5 m from the first. With the next watering, these distances change. Watering can also be done with rings around the tree and by sprinkling.
Sprinkler irrigation works best for pears
The Talgar beauty suffers more not from a lack, but from an excess of moisture. With excessive soil moisture, the vital activity of the suction roots weakens, they begin to die off. In addition, frequent and too abundant watering can provoke a rise in groundwater. With repeated watering in small doses, the tree does not receive enough moisture, the flow of oxygen into the soil is disturbed.
Pruning and shaping the crown
The formation and pruning of the crown means a lot in the life of a fruit tree. If the tree is not formed correctly, the trunk can even break with strong fruiting. To avoid this, always remove one of the competing shoots of equal strength (there should be no forks).
Since the trees of the Talgar beauty are prone to sagging branches, pruning can correct the shape of its crown. To do this, you need to trim the ends of the branches, leaving the buds (or small shoots) pointing up.
Correct pruning of branches prone to drooping improves crown shape
The crown of a pear tree is usually formed in the form of a palmette or a sparse-tiered type. The construction of a sparse-tiered crown consists in the fact that on the tree, 60–70 cm above the trunk, the uterine (main) branches are laid in two tiers. Each tier usually consists of 3 - 4 branches, with a distance between tiers of 60–80 cm. That is, the crown consists of 6–7 uterine branches, evenly spaced in the peri-stem space.
The sparse-tiered crown can have a different arrangement of branches: 1) 3–2-1–1 2) 3–1-1–1; 3) 2-2-1-1 4) 2-1-1-1
In early spring, it is necessary to remove frost-damaged, diseased and excess branches. The next pruning can be done in the fall.
Pear trees love fertilizer and can suffer from a lack of fertilizer. Regular feeding ensures tree health and good yields.
|Season||What fertilizers do we use||Method of application||Contributes to|
At the time of swelling of the kidneys, nitrogen-containing fertilizing is introduced: a solution of 2 tablespoons of nitrate is diluted in 10 liters of water or 100 g of carbamide per 5 liters of water. The rates are indicated for 1 tree
After flowering: 0.5 kg of nitroammophos is diluted in 50 liters of water. For 1 tree - 3 buckets of solution
|Root dressing||They help to build up leaf mass and improve the quality of future fruits.|
|Summer||After flowering: nitrogen-containing preparations, but the dose is 2 times less than the spring dose.||Foliar application||Increases resistance to fungal diseases.|
|Autumn||After harvest: potassium chloride - 1 tbsp, superphosphate - 2
tbsp. Dilute in 10 liters of water. This is the norm for watering 1 m 2. Do not use nitrogen-containing fertilizers !
|It is applied after moistening into a watering circle.||Helps the tree prepare for winter.|
An excellent organic fertilizer is poultry manure, especially duck, chicken and pigeon droppings. To reduce nitrogen losses, peat in the form of crumbs (25–30% by weight of the droppings) or superphosphate powder (6–10%) can be added to raw manure. Poultry droppings can be applied in early spring as the main fertilizer (0.5–0.6 kg per 1 m 2), but even more often it is used as top dressing (1–2 kg of droppings are diluted in 1 bucket of water and applied at 1.5 l / m 2). It is best to apply in grooves or holes, which are then immediately covered with soil.
Foliar dressing is done in the morning or in the evening.
Trees need trace elements. On acidic soils, there is a lack of magnesium, then dolomite limestone is added. On calcareous soils, it cannot be used; instead, trees are sprayed at the beginning of shoot growth with a solution of magnesium sulfate (1.8%). With a lack of copper, the shoots begin to dry out. In this case, copper sulfate (0.2%) is usually added in the form of foliar dressings.
How to fertilize a pear - video
Pests - table
The Talgar beauty is resistant to most diseases, even to scab, which affects most other pear varieties. However, this variety can be attacked by parasites.
The most common pests that do not spare pear trees are leafworm aphids, red fruit mites, and moths.
|Pest||Signs of defeat||Control methods and prevention|
|Leafworm aphid||Insect colonies may be visible on young shoots and leaves. The leaves curl up into a tube and begin to dry out.||
|Red fruit mite||The appearance of small light spots on the leaves, which then merge. The leaves turn rusty gray, as if dusty.||In case of mass reproduction of ticks, 2-3 sprays are carried out (from the moment the buds open to the protrusion of the buds). Insectoacaricides can be used: Fufanon, Fitaverm, Danadim.|
|Fruit moth||Dark spots on fruits, around which rot circles quickly appear.||
Pear pests in the photo
Aphid leafworm damages leaves and young shoots
Sucks juice from leaves, interrupting the process of photosynthesis
Moth females lay eggs on pear fruits
Most pear diseases are caused by various fungi. Fortunately, the Talgar beauty is resistant to such diseases, even to the ubiquitous scab. Pear trees of this variety can suffer from fire blight. The causative bacteria infect flowers, leaves, ovaries, young shoots, even the stem and the root collar. Evidence of the disease is the sudden wilting and blackening of inflorescences, leaves and shoots in spring, which looks like a burn. Then mucus begins to ooze from the affected areas, at first it is white, and when it dries it turns brown. In summer, on diseased shoots, the bark becomes covered with bubbles and cracks. The disease spreads through raindrops, wind and various insects, including bees.
A dangerous disease that primarily affects pears
To prevent this disease, it is necessary, first of all, to buy only proven, healthy planting material. When a disease occurs, quarantine should be observed and the foci of the disease should be immediately eliminated.
Adherence to agricultural practices when growing seedlings helps well, as this increases their vitality and resistance. As chemical methods of control, treatment with Bordeaux liquid or other preparations containing copper (for example, Abiga-peak) is recommended. It is best processed during flowering. Considering that not all flowers open at the same time, spraying should be repeated.
Collection, storage and use of crops
The fruits ripen in October, but it is better to start harvesting at the end of September - this will increase the shelf life. In addition, if pears are left on the tree until they are fully ripe, the taste and appearance deteriorate somewhat (dark spots may appear). The shelf life of pears of this variety is high - about 2 months, and the fruits can be stored in the refrigerator until February. During storage, the appearance of the pear almost does not change, as it ripens, the color from green turns into yellow, but stains and darkening do not appear. Due to the dense texture of the pulp, these pears tolerate transportation well.
Store pears in a cool, ventilated room with constant humidity and temperature. Wooden boxes or wicker baskets are well suited as containers - pears "breathe" in them. It is advisable to wrap each pear with paper, and lay straw or hay between the layers.
From Talgar beauty pears, excellent jams and candied fruits, compotes and juices are obtained. It is better not to make jam from them, since there are solid inclusions in the pulp. It is best, of course, to consume these pears fresh, because they are table varieties.
So, Talgar beauty is a high-yielding and unpretentious variety, resistant to diseases. True, its winter hardiness has limitations. But in general, by choosing this variety, you can enjoy sweet and crunchy pears and a variety of delicious processed products.