Table of contents:

Plum Stanley: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Plum Stanley: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Plum Stanley: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Stanley Plums: Being Choosy About Fruit Tree Varieties 2022, December
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The Stanley plum is a proven classic

Stanley plum
Stanley plum

Plum is a decoration of both the garden and the dining table. But not every variety is suitable for the cold Russian climate. Therefore, gardeners who are going to plant a plum in their garden and who are familiar with the descriptions of varieties should carefully choose from their variety not only fruitful, but also winter-hardy. The Stanley plum will satisfy both of these requirements.

Content

  • 1 Variety description

    1.1 Video: Stanley variety

  • 2 Advantages and disadvantages
  • 3 Landing features

    3.1 Video: planting a plum

  • 4 Tree care

    • 4.1 Fertilization
    • 4.2 Cropping
    • 4.3 Soil care
    • 4.4 Watering
    • 4.5 Preparing for winter
  • 5 Pests

    • 5.1 Table: harmful insects and control
    • 5.2 Photo gallery: plum pests
  • 6 Diseases

    • 6.1 Table: main plum diseases and methods of controlling them
    • 6.2 Photo gallery: plum diseases
  • 7 Collection, storage and use of crops
  • 8 Reviews of gardeners: pros and cons

Description of the variety

The late-ripening Stanley plum was bred long ago - in 1912 in the USA.

By type it belongs to Hungarian plums.

The trees are medium-sized, have a rather sparse rounded crown. The stem and trunk are straight, covered with a medium flaky, slightly cracked bark of a dark gray color. The shoots are painted in crimson-purple color, have rare spines. The green leaves with a glossy surface and jagged edges are of medium size. Flowering occurs in medium terms (mid-April). Each flower bud produces 1–2 very large flowers (diameter 30–31 mm) on a very long peduncle. Fruit formations are formed on bouquet twigs and growth of the previous year.

Plum Stanley
Plum Stanley

Stanley fruits are universal, they are good in any form

The fruits of the Stanley plum are very large (average weight - 40–45 g, maximum - 50 g), unequal, obovate and covered with a thick waxy coating. The main color is green, the integumentary color is dark purple. The rind is of medium thickness, difficult to separate. The pulp is yellow, aromatic, medium-juicy, dense, with a grainy-fibrous consistency. The taste is sweet with a slight sourness. It has a high sugar content - about 13.8%, ascorbic acid - 8.9 mg per 100 g. Large stone (3 cm in length) is freely separated from the pulp.

Video: Stanley variety

Advantages and disadvantages

The Stanley plum has much more advantages than disadvantages.

Advantages:

  • early maturity (fruiting from 4–5 years);
  • partial self-fertility;
  • high yield (50–60 kg per tree);
  • regular fruiting;
  • good indicators of winter hardiness (tolerates a drop in temperature to -34 o C);
  • large size and good taste of the fruit;
  • high resistance to polystygmosis and shark.

Disadvantages:

  • medium resistance to drought;
  • weak resistance to moniliosis.

Landing features

Pollinators for the Stanley variety are not so necessary, but nevertheless, to increase yields, it is recommended to plant Empress, Chachakskaya, Bluefri plums nearby.

The plum blooms early. If you were unable to find a pollinator or there were too few insects during flowering, you can resort to hand pollination. It is made in the afternoon after 2-3 days of dry warm weather. Use a soft brush or wadded match.

Hand pollination
Hand pollination

In the absence of pollinating insects, manual pollination may help

Plum grows best on fertile, neutral soil that is well aerated and sufficiently moist. It should be remembered that the stagnation of moisture does not tolerate drainage. For planting, choose seedlings 1–2 years old. The bark should be smooth, free of cracks, roots and branches - intact and firm. Do not take seedlings with open leaves.

Plum trees can be planted in April or mid-September - early October. When planting in autumn, the seedling must be given time for rooting (1–1.5 months before the onset of frost). When planting in spring, do not pull too much - late planting has a bad effect on the survival rate and further growth of the tree. Saplings should be planted at the beginning of bud swelling.

Choose a place sheltered from the north winds and well warmed by the sun for plums. For example, it can be planted on the south side of a fence. Plum does not tolerate shading by other trees or buildings - its leaves turn pale when there is a lack of light, and the fruits become sour and weakly colored. The distance to other trees should be at least 3–3.5 m.

Choosing a landing site
Choosing a landing site

You can not plant plums in places where cold air stagnates.

The planting pit should have a depth of 40-50 cm and a diameter of 65-70 cm. It should be prepared at least 1.5-2 weeks before planting, and best of all - from autumn. Drive a 1.5-meter stake into the middle of the pit, and next to it, fill up to 2/3 of the pit height with the top soil mixed with fertilizers.

As fertilizers, add to the soil mixture:

  • compost or humus (12–20 kg);
  • ammonium nitrate (100-200 g);
  • superphosphate (500 g);
  • potassium chloride (200-300 g).

To improve drainage, you can add 1–1.5 buckets of coarse river sand. It is better not to bring lime into the planting hole. If the soil is acidic, then the lime is introduced in advance for digging, at a rate of 0.6-0.8 kg per 1 m 2.

Planting a plum sapling
Planting a plum sapling

Correct planting is the key to the correct development of the tree

Planting sequence:

  1. A plum sapling is placed by a peg on a soil mound, the roots are carefully straightened.
  2. They begin to fill the hole with soil (possibly infertile), crushing each layer with your hands. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure the preservation of the vertical position of the seedling and the location of the root collar 4–5 cm above the soil level, otherwise the conditions for tree development will worsen.
  3. Form a hole and water the tree with 3-4 buckets of water.
  4. Tie the seedling to the peg with an eight-shaped loop. It is recommended to use soft materials (rolled fabric) for the garter.

Video: planting a plum

Tree care

Stanley plum care is traditional. The main thing is not to forget about it, to do everything carefully, in the right time frame.

Fertilizer

Any fruit tree needs fertilization. The first two years after planting, the tree is provided with nutrients introduced into the planting pit, and additional fertilizing can be omitted. From the third year, organic matter and minerals are introduced. If the tree bears fruit abundantly and regularly, it should be fertilized every year; in a lean year, fertilization does not need to be applied at all, and the next one should only give summer dressing.

The usual fertilizer rate per 1 m 2 is:

  • 10–12 kg of humus or rotted manure (in the period of full fruiting 15–20 kg);
  • 25-30 g of urea;
  • 30–35 g of double superphosphate (or 60–65 g of simple);
  • 20–35 g of potassium sulfate (can be replaced with ash - 200–250 g).

All these substances, except for urea, are introduced under the autumn digging of the soil. Urea (or saltpeter) is best used in the spring.

Fertilization
Fertilization

A good result is given by the simultaneous application of organic and mineral fertilizers for digging the soil

Plum trees are very sensitive to the lack of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium compounds. The tree responds to the lack of nitrogen by chlorosis of the leaves (which first turn pale green, and then pale yellow). In this case, the tree is sprayed with a solution of urea (20–25 g per 5 l of water) or ammonium nitrate (10–12 g per 5 l of water). Excess nitrogen is also harmful - it causes the active growth of fatty shoots, slows down the preparation of the tree for winter, which, accordingly, leads to freezing and the appearance of frost cracks.

Urea
Urea

Most often, urea is used for foliar feeding.

Potassium starvation is manifested in the browning of the edges of the leaves. With a deficiency of magnesium, leaf veins turn brown. Potassium and magnesium deficiencies often occur simultaneously. In this case, you need to add 35–40 g / m 2 of Kalimag granules to the soil.

With a weak growth of shoots and signs of oppression of the tree, it is necessary in early spring to additionally feed the tree with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 20 g per 1 m 2.

Organic or mineral fertilizers should be applied before flowering. 10 kg of organic matter (manure or dung) are diluted in 9 buckets of water and 4–6 buckets of solution are poured under each tree. Instead of organic fertilizers, you can use liquid mineral fertilizers: half a tablespoon of saltpeter is dissolved in 5 liters of water, 2-3 buckets of solution are applied under young trees, and 4–6 buckets under adults. After feeding, you need to mulch the ground with peat or sawdust.

In the summer, they feed with organic fertilizers - manure diluted with water (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20). Liquid fertilizers are applied to circular grooves along the border of the trunk circle, which is then mulched.

Pruning

Pruning - formative, thinning, sanitary - should be done in early spring or autumn when the tree is dormant. If necessary, sanitary pruning can be carried out in the summer.

A newly planted tree does not need to be pruned - its roots have been pruned so much in the nursery, and unnecessary pruning reduces the seedling's chances of recovery.

During the first 3-4 years, plum shoots grow intensively (sometimes up to 1.5-2 m per season), and in the summer, when they reach a length of 40-45 cm, they must be pinched. Otherwise, the crown will become "ankle", the crop will shift to its periphery.

Pruning young plums
Pruning young plums

correct pruning helps to regulate the growth of young trees

One of the main ways of forming the crown of a plum is the leader method.

The leader crown is made up of a central conductor and several main branches arranged in 2-3 tiers. When the tree reaches a height of 2–2.5 m, it is recommended to cut the conductor into a single side branch. At the first pruning (the next year after planting), a stem is formed. For the winter-hardy Stanley plum, the stem height should be 40-60 cm. Shoots on the stem are cut into a ring. If the tree has long branches (65–90 cm), they should be shortened by a third to enhance branching. Branches less than 50 cm long do not need to be shortened, and you should also not greatly shorten annual shoots, otherwise the crown will thicken strongly.

Old, poorly growing trees need strong anti-aging pruning for 3-5 years old wood.

Rejuvenating plum pruning
Rejuvenating plum pruning

For rejuvenation, you need to remove all weak, densely growing branches

In case of large yields, it is advisable to thin out the fruits in order to avoid their crumbling. Thinning is carried out twice: the first time - when the ovaries reach the size of a hazelnut, the second time - when they double, leaving a distance of 3-5 cm between the fruits.

Thinning fruit
Thinning fruit

When thinning fruits, use a knife or pruning shears, do not break off the ovaries with your hands

Soil care

The soil under the plum trees must be weed-free and kept loose. For loosening it is better to use a pitchfork - less chance of root damage. The depth of treatment at the periphery of the trunk circle is 15–20 cm, and near the trunk - 8–10 cm. To reduce moisture evaporation, the trunk circles should be mulched.

Loosening the trunk circle
Loosening the trunk circle

The soil of the near-trunk circle must be loosened and rid of weeds

If you do not want to constantly loosen the soil, you can use sodding. In this case, the grass must be cut 3-5 times during the summer and left in place - it will act as a mulch. Mowing is stopped in August – September.

While the trees are young, you can plant berry bushes (currants, gooseberries) between them. After 6–7 years (when the plums begin to bear fruit), these crops will already give the main harvest, they can be harvested, and instead, strawberries or honey plants can be planted in the aisles.

Watering

The Stanley plum is sensitive to drought and needs regular soil moisture. Remember that the roots of the plum tree are relatively close to the surface of the ground and dry out easily. Young trees require 5–6 waterings per season at a rate of 20–40 liters of water per tree. Mature trees should be watered 4–5 times a summer, 40–60 liters per tree. In autumn (late October - early November), it is recommended to use water-charging irrigation at the rate of 60–80 liters of water per tree to saturate the soil with moisture and increase its heat capacity, which improves overwintering.

Vegetative watering should be carried out during flowering and shoot growth, during the formation of ovaries and in the process of fruit growth. If during these periods the moisture supply is insufficient, then the growth of the tree weakened, the ovaries crumble, the fruits become smaller. In particularly hot and dry weather, additional watering may be required (4–5 buckets per tree). The surface of the soil can become crusty when it dries, so after watering the soil must be loosened and mulched with peat or straw.

Mulching soil in the garden
Mulching soil in the garden

After watering, the soil must be mulched with peat or sawdust

Water should be supplied by sprinkling or into irrigation grooves cut along the border of the near-trunk circle.

Taking care of watering, you should not go to extremes: with excessive soil moisture, the number of fungal diseases increases, shoots grow and even the tree blooms in autumn. All this leads to a weakening of the tree and a decrease in its winter hardiness.

Preparing for winter

Stanley plum is highly winter-hardy, so it does not need insulation for the winter. You should only take care of protection from rodents. To do this, tie the trunk and the main branches with prickly material (spruce branches, glass wool, metal mesh). In the presence of rodent holes, poisonous baits can be scattered near trees.

Pests

Typical pests for the Stanley variety are eurytoma (plum moth), plum moth and slimy sawfly.

Eurytoma (plum thickfoot) is dangerous because it affects the bone, interrupting the development of the fetus, and then hibernates in the stone for two more winter periods. When massively infested, the plum moth can destroy the entire crop. The slimy sawfly affects not only plums, but also cherries, cherry plums and blackthorns, completely destroying the pulp of the leaves.

Table: harmful insects and control

Pest name Signs of defeat Ways to fight
Eurytoma plum At the end of June - in July, ovaries massively crumble due to pests that have invaded the bones
  1. Treatment with karbofos or metaphos (0.3%) at the end of flowering (coincides with the beginning of the pest's flight), then repeat after 10-12 days.
  2. Soil etching with HCH powder (25%) at a rate of 45–50 g per 1 m 2.
  3. Collection and removal (burning, burying) of damaged fruits and seeds from branches and from the ground.
  4. Digging of near-trunk circles and row spacings to a depth of at least 10-15 cm
Plum moth Dark spots with streaks of gum are visible on green plums. Severely damaged fruits turn purple and fall off
  1. Spraying with chlorophos (0.25%) 1.5–2 weeks after flowering, then repeating after 2–3 weeks.
  2. Installation of fishing belts in mid-June.
  3. Loosening of the soil in near-trunk circles with an interval of 10 days while the caterpillars are leaving for pupation.
  4. Systematic cleaning of volunteers, cleaning and destruction of dying bark
Slimy sawfly On the leaves, areas with eaten away pulp appear, which gradually grow. Sometimes visible black slug-like pests 5-10 mm long
  1. Deep loosening and digging of the soil.
  2. Spraying before flowering or after harvesting with Karbofos (70-80 g per 10 l of water), Tryfos (10%), Rovikurt (10-12 g per 10 l of water)

Photo gallery: plum pests

Eurytoma (plum thickfoot)
Eurytoma (plum thickfoot)

Plum tolstostozh actively infects fruits, penetrating into the seeds

Plum moth
Plum moth

The caterpillars of the plum moth gnaw through the passages in the tree, spoil the appearance and taste of the fruits, cause them to fall off

Slimy sawfly
Slimy sawfly

These larvae, similar to small slugs, damage the leaves of many stone fruits, completely eating away the flesh of the leaf.

Diseases

Of the diseases for the Stanley plum, moniliosis is especially dangerous - the tree does not have sufficient resistance to it. In addition, the variety can be affected by rust.

Table: the main diseases of the plum and methods of dealing with them

Name of the disease Signs of the disease Control methods
Rust The appearance on the leaves of brown spots with powdery spore pads, which grow steadily and swell. Severely affected leaves dry up and fall off
  1. Thorough collection and destruction of fallen leaves.
  2. Two or three spraying during the summer with Bordeaux mixture (1%).
  3. Removing nearby host junipers
Moniliosis (fruit rot) Sudden browning and drying of flowers, then wilting of leaves and young fruit twigs. When fruits are damaged, brown rot spots appear on them, covered with small gray spore pads. On the affected branches, the bark cracks and gum is released
  1. Cut the affected branches to healthy wood and burn them.
  2. Spray with nitrafen (2%) in early spring or fall after leaf fall.
  3. Treat before and after flowering with copper chloride (75–80 g of powder per bucket of water) or 1% Bordeaux mixture.
  4. Autumn digging of soil with embedding of leaves

Photo gallery: plum diseases

Rust
Rust

Rust is a fungal disease, the main host of which is the juniper. The winter hardiness of the tree decreases

Plum moniliosis
Plum moniliosis

Monilial burn can affect young twigs that suddenly dry out

Moniliosis on plum fruits
Moniliosis on plum fruits

Moniliosis can affect plum fruits, which begin to rot on the branch.

Collection, storage and use of crops

The Stanley plum ripens in the first half of September.

It is recommended to harvest fruits in 2-3 stages, as it ripens. You need to start removing fruits from the outer part of the crown, from bottom to top. Be sure to pick plums along with the stalks, otherwise the fruits will be very little stored. Also, try not to remove the wax deposits.

Plum picking
Plum picking

It is better to use wooden or wicker containers for harvesting fruits.

You can store plums for 2-3 weeks at a temperature of + 5 … + 7 o C.

You can use the crop in any way - eat fresh, dry, freeze, prepare juices, compotes, preserves, marinades. In the USA and European countries, Stanley plum is the main raw material for the production of prunes.

Plum jam
Plum jam

Plum jam is perfect for sandwiches and pies

Reviews of gardeners: pros and cons

Reviews from experienced gardeners often provide even more valuable information than a general description of the variety.

The Stanley plum has good winter hardiness and yield characteristics, and is resistant to some diseases. True, this variety does not tolerate drought well, it is prone to moniliosis and pest damage. But with proper care, this plum pleases its owners with abundant and tasty harvests.

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