Table of contents:
- Tula black plum: a folk variety will not fail
- Description of plum varieties Tula black
- Landing features
- Diseases and pests
- Reviews of gardeners about the plum Tula black
Tula black plum: a folk variety will not fail
Plum is one of the favorite trees in the garden. Which of the varieties to choose is a common dilemma for a novice gardener. You can pay attention to the Tula black plum, which grows well in the Moscow region and adjacent areas. But, before acquiring even a proven variety, it is worth studying its characteristics.
1 Description of the plum variety Tula black
1.1 Table: advantages and disadvantages
2 Landing features
- 2.1 What time to land
- 2.2 Landing site
- 2.3 Selecting a seedling
- 2.4 Site preparation and planting pit
- 2.5 Step by step planting process
- 2.6 Video: planting a plum
- 3.1 Cropping
- 3.2 Watering
- 3.3.1 Table: application of fertilizing under the fruiting plum
- 3.3.2 Table: seedling fertilization
- 3.4 Care of the trunk circle
- 3.5 Plum care in autumn and preparation for winter
4 Diseases and pests
- 4.1 Table: Variety-specific diseases
- 4.2 Photo gallery: how to recognize a disease
- 4.3 Table: pests damaging the drain
- 4.4 Photo gallery: plum pests
- 5 Harvesting
- 6 Reviews of gardeners about the plum Tula black
Description of plum varieties Tula black
Plum varieties are highly adaptable to local conditions. One of these, called Tula Black, was described by the agronomist G.Ya. Silver. The exact origin is not known, but it is assumed that the progenitor is the Hungarian domestic plum.
Tula black plum belongs to the folk varieties
The size of the Tula black plum tree is small - from 2.5 to 4.5 m. The crown is dense, oval in shape. The leaf blade is oblong, with a sharp end, dentate along the edges. The color is dark green. Plum fruits are formed on bouquet branches, as well as on annual shoots from 30 cm in length.
Plum trees Tula black are low, with a dense crown
Fruits are round-oval or ovoid. In terms of size, the average is the usual weight of 15 - 20 g, but there are specimens that can weigh up to 30 g. The skin is thin, reddish-dark blue, almost black. A bluish-blue wax coating covers the entire surface of the plum.
The pulp is yellow-green in color, with a slight shade of red, dense in structure and very juicy. The taste is pleasant, sweet and sour (the skin gives sourness). The oblong bone is easily separated from the pulp. According to the tasters, the Tulskaya black plum scores 4.1 points out of 5.
The oblong bone separates well from the fetus
Table: advantages and disadvantages
|Good yield.||In a dry season, it tends to shedding fruits.|
|Annual fruiting.||Flower buds can be affected by low temperatures.|
|No pollinator is required for fruit setting.||The taste of the fruit depends on the climate.|
|Resistant to clasterosporium disease and fruit rot.|
|With average winter hardiness, it is easily restored.|
Since the plum will not tolerate repeated transplanting, you need to seriously observe all the subtleties of planting a tree.
What time to land
The climatic conditions of the region are the main factor that should be considered when choosing the time.
- in the suburbs and adjacent areas, it is better to plant plums in early spring. The seedling will have time to prepare for the coming winter with its possible temperature changes. When preparing for planting, be guided by the snow cover. On the 5th day after its descent, you can start the process. It is important to have time to meet the 2-week period, before the start of sap flow. A missed moment will negatively affect the survival rate of the plum;
- autumn planting is preferable in regions where winters are mild and the ground does not freeze to root level. When landing, you need to be in time before the onset of cold weather. The approximate month for laying the garden is October.
A seedling with a closed root system can be planted at any time
The choice of a site for permanent registration of plums is very important. After all, it is the sun that is the main factor on which the taste of the poured fruit depends. You need to choose a well-lit space. Plum growing in the shade will be very sour. In addition, a thermophilic tree should be protected from strong winds. Better to plant it near a house or fence.
Saplings should be planted in bright and wind-protected places.
The best soil for culture is moist loam, since plum suffers from moisture deficit. You can even plant the plant in areas with slightly lower soil levels. Groundwater can flow at a level of 1 - 1.2 m from the ground surface. Wetlands should definitely be excluded.
In addition to the listed requirements, it is worth considering the location of other fruit trees in the selected area. So that the plum does not subsequently fall into the shade and does not challenge the rights to moisture with competitors, the neighbors should be located at least 3 m from each other.
High-quality planting material is the key to a generous harvest and tree longevity. Study the seedlings carefully and choose only healthy ones.
- the highest rates of survival rate for seedlings aged 1 to 2 years;
- the one-year-old tree has no branches yet, and the two-year tree has from 3 to 5 branches;
- the plant should have a straight trunk, smooth bark without wrinkles and damage. To ensure that the seedling is in good condition, ask the seller to slightly cut a small area. If there is green wood under it, then the plum is alive, the brown color indicates the opposite;
- the root system should be well developed, which will be evidenced by a strong central root and 3 lateral ones, covered with auxiliary thin roots. The fabrics are elastic, without broken and rotten areas, sagging and growths;
- during transportation, be sure to protect the root system from drying out. It's easy to do - wrap a damp cloth around the roots and put them in a plastic bag, which you leave open.
Choose only healthy planting material from trusted sellers or specialized centers
Site preparation and planting pit
The selected place must be cleared of vegetation. If the soil is acidic, it is worth liming - on light soils, up to 400 g of lime per 1 m 2 are applied, on heavy soils, the rate is doubled. The procedure will need to be repeated every 5 years.
The planting hole is always dug and filled in advance. This is necessary so that nutrients can be evenly distributed in the ground. Preparation usually starts in six months. But for lack of time, the process can be accelerated.
- Mark the boundaries of the planting pit. Dig a hole 60 cm deep and 70 cm wide. When removing the top fertile soil layer, set it aside.
- Drive a tall stick in the center of the hole. It will serve as a seedling protection from the sun's rays and a reliable support.
- Add rotted manure or compost to the set aside - 2 buckets, nitrophosphate - 400 g. Mix the soil well with fertilizers and pour it into the pit. Pour 1 bucket of water on top to settle the soil.
Preparatory work must be carried out much earlier than the intended landing
Step-by-step planting process
Dried plum roots should be soaked in water for a day. If the root system is in order, you can proceed.
- Collect the soil in the center of the hole in the form of a mound.
- Place the plum on top of it, and gently straighten the roots to the sides. Avoid twists and creases.
- Holding the plum by the trunk, cover the roots with earth, pour out a bucket of water and wait until it is absorbed.
- After sedimentation of the soil, the root collar should be 3 - 5 cm above ground level. If it is too deep, pull the seedling up. If it is very high, and at the same time some of the roots are still bare, add the soil to the desired level. Tamp down.
- Make a roller of earth around the seedling at a distance of 40 cm.
- Pour 2 buckets of water.
- After the moisture has been absorbed, cover the trunk circle with a layer of mulch.
Video: planting a plum
Tula black plum care is very simple. But you should not neglect simple rules, otherwise you may be left without a crop.
For the Tulskaya black variety, a sparse-tiered crown shape is suitable. The breathability of the foliage and even lighting will help the fruit grow large and sweet.
The crown of plums is given a sparse-tiered shape
- If the plum is planted in the spring, then the formation of the crown begins immediately after planting. Trees planted in fall should wait until next spring.
- The sparse-tiered crown assumes from 5 to 7 strong branches, which will form the basis of the crown. They should move away from the trunk at an angle of 45-50 0 (the angle of inclination at a young age is easy to correct with a rope).
- Annuals are cut at a height of 70 - 80 cm from the ground. In two-year-olds, branches are determined, which will form the basis of the first tier and a central conductor. Skeletal branches are shortened by 1/3, and the main one after pruning should be 20-30 cm higher than the lateral ones. The shoots located on the trunk are cut into a ring, skeletal ones - into a lateral bud.
- The next year, the side branches and the central conductor are moderately shortened (so that it remains straight, the cut is made on the opposite side of last year's pruning). They also clear the trunk of overgrown branches, cut out growing and competing branches.
- The following spring, in order to control the height of the plum, the central conductor is cut at a height of 2.5 m.At the end of July, when the crown is overgrown with new shoots and foliage, it is possible to assess how thick the crown is and to remove all excess.
- Further pruning should keep the crown sparse and control the growth of the center conductor.
In autumn, a preventive examination of the plum is carried out. Sick and broken branches must be removed. During the growth decay, a light rejuvenating pruning is carried out, shortening the branches to 3-4-year-old wood.
A sharp garden tool is required for pruning
The most demanding for watering are young seedlings, especially in the first year of planting. To build up root mass and healthy growth, one tree requires a bucket of water 4 - 5 times a month. When scheduling watering, be guided by the weather conditions.
Plum seedlings are very demanding for watering
Adult fruiting plums have their own watering schedule:
- after flowering;
- In 2 weeks;
- during the formation of the ovary;
- while pouring fruits;
- after harvest;
- autumn watering in October, but if it is rainy weather, then this stage can be skipped so that a swamp does not form around the plum.
Since the Tula black plum is a compact tree, 2 - 3 buckets of water under the tree will be enough to water it.
The method of drip irrigation is very good, allowing moisture to evenly and gradually penetrate deep into the soil. If this is not possible, then you need to water the plum in 2 doses - in the morning and in the evening. If you pour everything out at once, moisture will stand under the crown for a long time. And in hot weather, this will lead to evaporation and increased humidity around the tree. If this happens constantly, fungal diseases may appear.
Drip irrigation allows moisture to be absorbed evenly into the soil
Fertilizers applied to the planting pit will last for 2 years. And then it is worth taking care of tree feeding. In order for the plum to have enough strength for spring growth, fruit setting and an abundant harvest, 3 dressings are carried out per season.
Table: applying dressings for a fruiting plum
|Before flowering.||A solution of 10 liters of water and potassium sulfate and urea, taken 35 g each. Top dressing is applied to a moist and loosened soil in the root area. The norm for 1 tree is 30 - 35 liters.|
|Pouring fruit.||Dilute 30 g of nitrophoska and urea in 10 liters of water. One tree is enough 25 - 30 liters of solution.|
|When the crop is fully harvested.||30 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate per 10 liters of water. The norm is 30 - 40 liters per 1 discharge.|
For a seedling, the fertilization scheme looks somewhat different. The first feeding should contain nitrogen to help the plant start growing quickly. You can use urea or liquid fertilizer Ideal - 2 tbsp. l. 10 liters of water. Further maintenance of the young tree (before the beginning of fruiting) occurs according to the following scheme.
Table: fertilization for the seedling
|When to fertilize||What fertilizer to use|
|In the beginning of May.||In 10 liters of water, dilute 2 tbsp. l. urea or 3 tbsp. l. growth stimulator of sodium humate.|
|The beginning of June.||Nitrofoska - 2 tbsp. l. 10 liters of water.|
|Mid-August.||For a bucket of water - 2 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate and superphosphate.|
|For 1 seedling, up to 30 liters of solution are consumed.|
Besides mineral fertilizers, the plum is very responsive to organic matter. Well-rotted manure (10-15 kg) is applied no more than 1 time in 2-3 years for autumn digging.
Correctly fertilized plum Tula black will not be stingy on the harvest
Barrel circle care
So that the Tulskaya black plum does not lack moisture, the trunk circle is loosened after each watering or rain. By breaking up the resulting crust on the surface of the soil, you also help to establish gas exchange in the roots. Manual weeding and cutting of root growth is the prevention of many types of pests. Mulching is also a necessary care element. Mulch perfectly retains moisture in the soil and prevents weeds from growing.
Mulch retains moisture in the soil and prevents weeds from germinating
Plum care in autumn and preparation for winter
How the plum overwinters depends on the quality of the autumn work.
- In September, the area under the crown is freed from fallen leaves, weeds, broken branches and fallen fruits. This must be done so that there is no place for wintering for pests and diseases.
- The trunk circle is carefully dug up.
- The trunk is cleaned of old bark, damaged areas are removed and the wounds are closed with garden pitch. Then whitewash is applied.
- To protect the branches from diseases and pests, it is sprayed with a urea solution.
- Wrapping the trunk with a mosquito net will keep rodents out of the drain.
In autumn, the trunk circle is carefully dug up
An adult plum, planted in the right place and well-groomed, does not need to be wrapped up for the winter. The only measure that protects the roots from frost is a thick layer of mulch.
Saplings need more reliable protection. Fragile trunks must be protected from frost. Any non-woven covering material, cardboard, newspapers, burlap or nylon tights can be suitable as an impromptu blanket. The main requirement is good air and moisture permeability. You can tie the tree with spruce or pine branches, securing them with needles down. By the way, such a shelter will also protect you from rodents.
Lapnik will not only protect from frost, but also save from rodents
Diseases and pests
Tula black plum shows good resistance to clasterosporium disease and fruit rot. But, in addition to these diseases, there are many others, no less dangerous. It is important to recognize the disease in time and take measures to overcome it.
Table: diseases characteristic of the variety
|Plum pockets||A fungal disease that spreads in wet and cool weather. It manifests itself at the stage of fetal formation. It deforms, becomes elongated and flat. The bone is not formed. The disease can affect up to 30% of the crop.||Spray a diseased tree with a 0.2% solution of copper oxychloride.||
|Gum therapy||The first signs appear in the form of small drops on the trunk, similar to honey. Then they expand and harden. The plum weakens, infection can penetrate through the wounds.||
|Moniliosis||This disease is often confused with freezing. It is manifested by the sudden wilting of shoots, flowers and leaves.||
|Dangerous viral disease. At the initial stage, it can be identified by the shape and size of the sheet. It is narrow, small in size, with uneven edges. The leaves then thicken and become brittle. At the top of the shoot appear in whole bunches. Peduncles are deformed from the disease.||Plum dwarfism is not cured. If an affected tree is found, it should be uprooted and burned.||
|Smallpox plum||The first manifestations appear on the leaves as chlorotic spots or lines. On the fruit, depressed areas of a dark color are formed. Plums become unusable.||Not amenable to treatment. The plum will have to be removed from the site and destroyed.|
Photo gallery: how to recognize a disease
A disease called plum pockets causes deformities in the fetus
Gum cutting can lead to shrinkage of whole branches
Moniliosis is often mistaken for the effects of frostbite
On a tree affected by dwarfism, deformed leaves begin to grow in bunches
Plumpox affects leaves and fruits
In addition to diseases, pests can also threaten the Tula black plum. Most often they attack weakened and unkempt trees.
Table: pests damaging the plum
|Pest||How to recognize||Control measures||Prevention|
|The female thickfoot lays eggs inside the fetus at the stage of its formation. In the middle of summer, damaged plums fall off. The primary sign of fetal damage is resin droplets flowing from it.||After flowering, the plum must be sprayed with Insegar according to the instructions.||
|Plum aphid||The pest greatly weakens the plum. It feeds on plant sap. The colony settles on young shoots and the underside of leaves. It is a carrier of fungal diseases.||At the first signs of aphids, treat with Inta-Vir (1 tablet per 1 liter of water) or 0.3% Karbofos solution.||
|The pest sucks out nutrients from the plum, which greatly depletes the tree. The toxins in saliva dissolve plant tissues. As a result, the bark dies off and flakes off. A young tree can die 2 years after the defeat.||
|Females lay eggs in buds. During the formation of the ovary, a larva hatches, which eats up the contents of the bone.||To fight the sawfly, you need to treat the crown of the plum with Inta-vir or Iskra (1 tablet per bucket of water).||
Photo gallery: plum pests
Fruits damaged by a thickened peel fall off in the middle of summer
Plum aphids feed on plant sap, greatly weakening it
2 years after infection with a false shield, the tree may die
The plum sawfly larva damages the fruit bone
At the time of fruiting plum Tula black enters only 5 - 6 years of life. Refers to mid-late ripening varieties (fruits ripen in early September). The maximum yield with good care is up to 35 kg per tree, the average yield reaches 14 kg.
Tula black ripens in early September
Harvesting occurs as the fruits ripen. Plums are picked off the stalk and sorted for storage or processing.
Fruits are placed in boxes in 3 layers (transferring from one container to another is undesirable - the fruits may wrinkle and their shelf life will be reduced). Storage at 90% humidity and temperatures up to 2 0 С increases the shelf life up to a month. The drain will stay in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.
A dented or damaged plum is used in processing - juices, liqueurs and liqueurs come out best. This is due to the fact that the fruit contains a lot of juice. The jam may turn out to be slightly watery.
Tula black plum produces excellent juice
The fruits will be most beneficial in their natural form. The organic acids, macro- and microelements contained in the plum will help to strengthen the immune system, regulate the digestive processes and cardiac activity.
Reviews of gardeners about the plum Tula black
The plum variety Tula black does not require complex care. Therefore, its popularity has not fallen for many years. Of course, the tree needs systematic watering and feeding. But as a reward for his care at the beginning of autumn, the gardener collects a generous harvest, which the Tulskaya black plum brings from year to year.