Table of contents:

Cherry Molodezhnaya: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Cherry Molodezhnaya: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Anonim

Cherry Molodezhnaya - compact and fruitful variety

cherry youth
cherry youth

Cherries are a favorite berry of many gardeners. These trees are usually hardy, unpretentious and fruitful. In any case, these are the qualities that Molodezhnaya cherries, recommended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia, have.

Content

  • 1 Description of the variety Molodezhnaya

    1.1 Advantages and disadvantages

  • 2 Landing features

    • 2.1 Site selection
    • 2.2 Selection of planting material
    • 2.3 Landing dates
    • 2.4 Preparing for landing
    • 2.5 Sequence of landing

      2.5.1 Planting cherries - video

  • 3 Tree care

    • 3.1 How to care for young cherries
    • 3.2 Cropping

      3.2.1 Pruning young cherries - video

    • 3.3 Soil care
    • 3.4 Fertilization
    • 3.5 Watering
    • 3.6 Preparation for winter, protection from rodents and birds
  • 4 Diseases and pests of cherries and their control

    • 4.1 Table: cherry diseases and their treatment
    • 4.2 Diseases of cherries in the photo
    • 4.3 Table: Cherry pests and control
    • 4.4 Cherry pests in the photo
  • 5 Collection, storage and use of crops
  • 6 Reviews

Description of the variety Molodezhnaya

This cherry, which has an average ripening period, was bred by the scientists of the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery H.D. Enikeev and S.N. Satarova. Zoned for the Central region of Russia, but also grown in the Urals, Belarus and Ukraine.

The tree is weak or medium-sized (2–2.5 m), has a somewhat drooping, rounded crown. The branches are covered with medium-sized bright green leaves. Fruit trees are last year's growths and bouquet branches. Flowering occurs in mid-May.

Blooming cherry
Blooming cherry

During flowering, cherry is not inferior in beauty to the famous sakura

Fruits are rather large (4.5–5 g), oval-rounded, dark burgundy in color. The flesh of cherries is dense, saturated with dark red juice, sweet and sour taste. The bone can be easily separated from the pulp.

Molodezhnaya cherry berries
Molodezhnaya cherry berries

Ripe cherries have a beautiful burgundy color

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:

  • early maturity (active fruiting begins from the fourth year);
  • self-fertility (that is, no pollinators are required);
  • regular rather high (10-12 kg per tree) and long-term (15-20 years) yield;
  • good indicators of winter hardiness;
  • presentation and pleasant taste of the fruit.

Disadvantages:

  • average frost resistance of flower buds;
  • low resistance to fungal diseases.

Landing features

Planting a tree should be taken very responsibly, since mistakes made at this stage will be difficult to correct in the future.

Seat selection

With good drainage, cherries can grow in almost any soil, but they are best suited for neutral or slightly alkaline soil. Since cherries bloom early, they should not be planted in places where cold air stagnates.

It is advisable to plant cherries on a site with a slight slope, but you should not choose hills for planting: snow cover is blown off them even with weak winds, and in summer the soil is very dry.

Trees tolerate partial shade well, so they can be planted on the north side of the fence. Groundwater should be no closer than 2–2.5 m from the earth's surface.

If the tree is planned to be formed with a central guide, it needs to be tied to a support stake for 4–5 years. In the fan-shaped case, pull the support wire on the fence at 15 cm intervals before planting.

The choice of planting material

Cherry quite actively forms root suckers, which often have the properties of a mother plant and can be used for planting. It is only necessary to properly separate and transplant the shoots so that they quickly take root in a new place. Select 1 or 2 year old root suckers. Use a sharp shovel at a distance of 20–25 cm from the mother tree to chop off the roots leading to the growth. Carefully dig up the ground around the offspring, regularly destroy weeds and water. You can transplant a plant to a new place only the next year.

Planting root suckers
Planting root suckers

Good planting material can be obtained from cherry root shoots

You should not buy seedlings with dry branches and roots, with damaged bark or dried buds.

Landing dates

Planting can be done both in spring and in autumn, during the dormant period of the tree. In regions with early and severe winter, planting is recommended in the spring (seedlings purchased in the fall can be dug in). In spring, planting should not be done too early - you need to wait for the soil to warm up properly. Cherries are usually planted later than apples and pears. Delaying the landing is also not recommended - try to be in time before bud break.

Preparing for landing

Destroy weeds and grass in the selected area in advance by shallow loosening.

Dig the planting hole in the fall, separating the fertile and infertile soil layers. The size of the pit depends on the strength of the root growth, although in any case - the larger the size of the pit, the better. Usually, a pit 0.8–1 m wide and 0.4–0.6 m deep is sufficient for a cherry tree.

Planting pit preparation
Planting pit preparation

The planting hole should be sized to match the size of the root system. Fertile soil should be folded into a separate pile

Mix fertile soil with humus or compost (15–20 kg), superphosphate (0.4–0.5 kg), potassium sulfate (55–60 g) or ash (0.4–0.6 kg). If you want to reduce the acidity of the soil, add 200-300 g of crushed lime. Make a pillow out of this mixture at the bottom of the hole.

Planting sequence

  1. Before planting, make sure once again that the seedling is not seriously damaged, cut off dried roots and twigs. If the tree is very dry, immerse it for 1-2 days in water along with the branches.
  2. Deepen the support stake (1.2–1.4 m) into the center of the bottom of the pit.
  3. Place the seedling on a "cushion" of soil mixture so that the root collar is several centimeters above ground level.
  4. Spread out the roots of the tree and cover them with soil so that all gaps are evenly filled.
  5. Form an irrigation hole surrounded by a soil roller. Pour 2-3 buckets of water over the seedling.
  6. Tie the tree to the support stake with a figure-eight loop.

Planting cherries - video

Tree care

Cherry care is not particularly difficult, but it has some nuances.

How to care for young cherries

Cherry needs especially careful care in the first year after planting, since during this period there is a slow recovery of the root system and the aerial part damaged during planting. It is especially important to provide the plant with moisture. Watering should be done every 10–12 days, after which the soil must be loosened and mulched with a 7–8 cm layer of manure or humus. This not only helps to retain moisture, but also nourishes the young tree.

Mulching trees
Mulching trees

Young trees are useful to mulch with compost or manure.

Weeds should be removed regularly to avoid ripening. You cannot plant vegetables, berries and other crops under a tree in the first year.

Pruning

Formative, thinning and sanitary pruning is required for any fruit tree.

Young cherry pruning - video

Cherry trees can be formed in the form of a bush or in a standard form - fan or pyramidal. Youth is small in size, so it is better to grow it in a fan shape near the fence. To do this, after the formation of a stem with a height of 20-30 cm, two branches are selected that grow in the same plane from different sides of the tree, the remaining shoots are cut into a ring.

Forming cherries with a fan crown
Forming cherries with a fan crown

The fan shape of the tree takes up little space, is created within 3 years

Within 3 years after planting, they form the basis of the "fan", selecting correctly directed shoots and tying them to the guides. From the 4th year, it is necessary to carry out summer thinning of new shoots and remove branches directed to or from the fence.

Care for an adult fan-shaped cherry
Care for an adult fan-shaped cherry

To stimulate growth, fertile branches are cut to replacing young

To maintain good yields, root shoots should be removed annually.

At the age of 15–20 years, the cherry grows old, and its fruiting drops sharply. Rejuvenating cherries is almost impossible. But you can choose one or two offspring from the root growth, located closer to the trunk of the mother tree, and remove the rest. Then the old tree is removed.

Soil care

In contrast to other fruit trees, cherry does not like sodding of the soil - it helps to reduce growth, die off the tops of shoots, and reduce set formation.

In autumn, deep loosening is performed (the depth of processing decreases when moving from the periphery of the near-trunk circle to the trunk). The shovel blade should be positioned along the radius of the trunk circle. In the spring and summer, only surface loosening is performed.

Fertilizer

Cherry trees respond very “gratefully” to fertilizers. Organic matter is applied in the form of compost or manure in the fall. Simultaneously with them, compounds of potassium and phosphorus are used. Nitrogen fertilizers are divided into 2 parts and 1 part is applied in the spring, and the other - at the end of flowering. For young trees, fertilizers are applied only over the area of ​​the trunk circle, and for adults (from 5-6 years old) - in the aisles.

In summer, weakened trees are fed with slurry diluted in a ratio of 1: 5 or bird droppings. It is recommended to carry out liming every 5–6 years with crushed dolomite or lime (0.3–0.5 kg / m 2). Fertilizer rates are prescribed depending on the age of the tree:

  • for 2-year-old trees, 10-15 kg of manure and 45-50 g of ammonium nitrate are required; potassium and phosphorus compounds can be omitted;
  • 3-4-year-old trees need to increase the amount of manure to 20 kg, increase the dose of ammonium nitrate by 1.5 times, and add superphosphate (0.1 kg) and potassium salts (50–55 g);
  • from 5-6 years, the dose of manure is increased to 20-30 kg, saltpeter - up to 100 g, superphosphate - up to 150 g, potassium salts - up to 70-75 g.

With winter freezing, it is useful to carry out foliar dressing with a solution of urea (70–75 g per 10 l of water). The first feeding is given after the leaves have bloomed, and then, if necessary, repeat after 3-4 weeks.

Very good results are obtained by spraying the leaves with a 0.1% solution of zinc sulfate. When spraying freshly blossomed leaves, the concentration of the solution must be halved.

Watering

In whatever form the soil under the trees is, the cherry requires watering, which should be especially abundant in dry weather. If there is no rainfall, watering cherry every 10 days, at the rate of 2.5 liters / m 2 for the young, 3-3.5 l / m 2 for entering fruiting and 3.5-4.5 l / m 2 for adults trees. If the soil is too dry, do not give too much water at once - the fruits may crack.

In general, remember that cherries are more resistant to drought than waterlogging. Its cherry is harder to bear than the apple tree. In rainy autumn weather, the growth of roots is delayed, they can freeze and even completely die. Non-grafted, self-rooted cherries have a shallower root system and can tolerate excess moisture more easily.

Winter preparation, protection from rodents and birds

Cherry Youth is quite winter-hardy and does not require special protection for the winter. It is easy to protect cherries from spring frosts (cover with burlap) if they have a fan shape.

Spring frost protection
Spring frost protection

Trees growing against the wall can easily be covered with burlap

Poisoned baits can be used against rodents or thorny materials can be tied around the trunk and main branches. Birds can cause great damage: in winter, some birds (for example, bullfinches) peck at the buds, and in summer, ripe berries. You can save the crop from birds by covering the tree with nets.

Diseases and pests of cherries and the fight against them

Unfortunately, Molodezhnaya cherry is not very resistant to fungal diseases. Consider the most dangerous and common diseases and possible treatment.

Table: cherry diseases and their treatment

Name of the disease Signs of defeat Prevention and treatment
Moniliosis There is a sudden blackening and drying of young leaves and shoots, fruit twigs, as well as flowers and buds. When the fungus-pathogen enters the fruit, rot appears with small foci of spores. The disease spreads rapidly in damp cold weather.
  • Carry out preventive thinning, destroy fallen leaves, rotten fruits, remove and burn affected shoots.
  • Spraying with Bordeaux liquid (3-4%) in the green cone phase, then at the end of flowering (1% solution) and 1 more time - after 2-3 weeks. If the year is rainy, the number of sprays is increased to 5–6.
  • Fight disease-spreading insects (eg, weevils).
Rust Leaves are covered with rusty-brown spots with fungal spores
  • For prevention, destroy fallen leaves. Make sure that spindle plants (intermediate hosts of the disease) do not spread in the garden.
  • Spray trees with Bordeaux mixture (1%).
Phomopsiosis They dry out, twist in a spiral, then the leaves begin to fall off. The bark darkens, becomes covered with spots and longitudinal cracks, in which the causative fungus remains.

For prophylaxis, before bud break, clean the affected bark and cover up the wounds

Milky shine The fungus gives the leaves a characteristic pearlescent color. Pockets of dead tissue appear between leaf veins. The cuts of the branches show the browning of the wood.
  • Protect the tree from sunburn and mechanical damage.
  • Heal wounds and cracks in a timely manner.
  • Immediately eliminate diseased branches or even entire trees.

Cherry diseases in the photo

Cherry moniliosis
Cherry moniliosis

Shoots and leaves affected by moniliosis look burnt

Rust on the sheet
Rust on the sheet

Rust is one of the most common fungal diseases

Milky shine
Milky shine

Milky sheen disease can lead to tree death

Table: cherry pests and control

Pest name Signs of defeat Control measures
Cherry aphid Leaves from which aphids suck sap dry, curl and turn black
  • Early spring spraying with Nitrafen (30 g per bucket of water).
  • Treatment at the beginning of bud break with a solution of Karbofos (15 g per 5 l of water) or a solution of soap (150-200 g per 5 l of water).
  • Eliminate root growth on a regular basis.
Cherry shoot moth The pest butterfly lays eggs next to the fruit buds. Caterpillars damage buds, buds and leaves, causing the shoots to dry out
  • Loosening and digging up the soil regularly.
  • Spray trees with Chlorophos (dissolve 15–20 g in 10 liters of water).
Cherry Slime Sawfly Sawfly larvae scrape off the green pulp of the leaves, causing them to dry out
  • Observe soil maintenance rules.
  • Treat with Karbofos or Chlorophos (10 g per 5 l of water)

Cherry pests in the photo

Aphids on cherry
Aphids on cherry

Insect colonies settle on young shoots and leaves and suck the juice out of them

Cherry shoot moth
Cherry shoot moth

The moth attacks cherry shoots, causing them to dry out

Slimy cherry sawfly
Slimy cherry sawfly

The sawfly attacks many stone fruits by eating the flesh of the leaves.

Collection, storage and use of crops

Ripening of cherries begins on July 20-25. It is advisable not to allow the berries to overripe, as they begin to crumble, and their shelf life decreases. Cherries should be harvested with their stalks (no stalks - only for quick processing) in dry weather.

Thanks to their dense pulp, the berries can easily tolerate transportation (it is best for this purpose to pick the berries a week before full ripening).

Frozen cherry
Frozen cherry

Frozen cherries can be stored for a very long time and serve as a source of vitamins in winter

The Molodezhnaya variety belongs to dessert, but the berries can not only be consumed fresh, but also made from them jams, marshmallows, juices, compotes. You can also freeze cherries in plastic containers and enjoy fresh berries in winter.

Reviews

Cherry Molodezhnaya is a small tree, so it can be grown in small areas. With minimal maintenance, this cherry will respond with a good harvest of delicious berries that can be used in almost any form.

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