Table of contents:
- How to choose aluminum doors
- Types and designs of aluminum doors
- Manufacturing of aluminum doors
- Installation and assembly of aluminum doors
- Accessories for aluminum doors
- Repair and adjustment of aluminum doors
How to choose aluminum doors
Slowly but surely, aluminum doors are pushing out their iron and wooden counterparts from the market. There is a simple explanation for this - aluminum and its alloys are non-flammable, non-corrosive, biologically and chemically resistant. Operation of aluminum doors does not require additional costs - the estimated service life is 80–100 years and is virtually unlimited except for mechanical damage. Pure aluminum is a soft metal, but with the addition of a certain amount of magnesium and copper, its properties change dramatically. The strength of the alloy becomes comparable to that of steel.
1 Types and designs of aluminum doors
1.1 External aluminum doors
1.1.1 Table: Comparative characteristics of plastic and aluminum doors
1.2 Internal aluminum doors
1.2.1 Photo gallery: types of interior aluminum doors
1.3 Aluminum doors with glass
1.3.1 Photo gallery: aluminum doors with glass
- 1.4 Hinged aluminum doors
1.5 Aluminum swing doors
1.5.1 Video: Installation of swing doors
1.6 Aluminum sliding doors
1.6.1 Video: sliding aluminum doors in the apartment
- 1.7 Aluminum sliding doors
1.8 Aluminum doors with telescopic frame
1.8.1 Video: assembly and installation of the telescopic box
- 1.9 Aluminum doors smoke tight
- 1.10 Rolled aluminum doors
1.11 Folding aluminum doors
1.11.1 Video: Folding Folding Doors
- 2 Manufacturing of aluminum doors
3 Installation and assembly of aluminum doors
3.1 Video: dismantling and installing doors in the apartment
4 Accessories for aluminum doors
4.1 Video: door hardware
5 Repair and adjustment of aluminum doors
5.1 Adjusting aluminum door hinges
5.1.1 Video: how to adjust the WX buttonhole by pressure
Types and designs of aluminum doors
There is a huge variety of aluminum door models. This is due to the requirements of building architecture and construction practices. When designing a structure, engineers put not only functional but also aesthetic load into every detail of the interior. All nuances are taken into account: cost, service life, complexity of delivery and installation, maintenance. And more and more people prefer aluminum doors.
Today, aluminum doors with glazing at every step - at the entrance to supermarkets, shopping pavilions, shops, business and medical centers
External aluminum doors
The task of external doors is to protect the building from unwanted intrusion, weather disasters and ensure the safety of property. Therefore, the front door must meet the following requirements:
- increased strength;
- increased thermal insulation;
- compliance with fire safety standards;
- increased throughput and dimensions.
The use of aluminum alloys for the production of entrance doors allows us to successfully solve the assigned tasks.
Aluminum profiles, from which door structures are assembled, are produced in two modifications:
- "Cold" aluminum;
The structure of a multi-chamber aluminum profile for glazing
The "cold" profile is an all-metal product, the "warm" one is multi-chamber, with polymer (polyamide) inserts pressed inside, which prevent freezing, penetration of drafts and heat removal from the room during the cold season
External entrance doors of buildings made of aluminum are produced mainly from a “warm” profile. It competes successfully with traditional doors made of plastic.
Table: Comparative characteristics of doors made of plastic and aluminum
|Specifications||Plastic door||Aluminum door|
|The largest width of the door leaf||up to 90 cm||up to 120 cm|
|Operating time||under 50||up to 100 years|
|Risk of deformation||Increases over time||Eliminated due to robust frame|
|Thermal conductivity retention coefficient||0.8-0.85m 20 C / W||0.55-0.66m 20 C / W|
|Fire resistance||Melts and burns under the influence of fire, releasing toxic substances||Not subject to combustion and deformation, does not emit harmful substances|
|average price||Affordable price||30% higher price (depending on profile configuration)|
Internal aluminum doors
These are interior doors: interior doors, corridor doors and others. The main requirement for internal doors is sound insulation and partly heat resistance, as well as the regulation of ventilation inside the premises. Such doors are distinguished by a great variety of designs and constructive solutions. They are rarely made all-metal, more often by combining an aluminum frame with inserts made of glass, wood or plastic. However, doors made entirely of sheet metal are also found. They can be found in garages, basements, and office spaces.
The standard dimensions of internal doors are:
- width from 60 to 90 cm;
- height from 190 to 220 cm.
Weight is not standardized, it all depends on the purpose of the doors and the materials used for their manufacture. The range of applications is wide: from residential and office premises to production and storage facilities. If the dimensions of the doorway differ from the standard ones, various combinations are used - one-and-a-half, two- or three-leaf doors. The excess height of the opening is covered with stationary blocks, most often with window glazing. In addition, it is practiced to adjust the opening to the dimensions of standard doors. Its shape is changed with brickwork or plasterboard structures.
Photo gallery: types of interior aluminum doors
Aluminum interior doors blend seamlessly with modern interiors
Interior doors made of aluminum are an elegant solution for those who value strict lines and high quality
The aluminum interior door can be equipped with decorative glass - matte, embossed or decorated with a sandblasted pattern
Double-leaf glass doors made of aluminum will allow more light into the room and visually expand the space
Aluminum doors with glass
Doors that combine two modern materials - glass and aluminum - are very popular. This combination allows the production of robust and reliable door structures. As a rule, the frame consists of aluminum profiles, and the inside of the sash is made of glass, as a result of which, with high strength, the opening looks light and light. The technology successfully competes with similar structures made of plastic and glass and has several advantages. One of them is that metal does not accumulate static electricity.
Despite the apparent lightness, the door structure, assembled according to the "aluminum + glass" formula, has a margin of increased strength
Regulatory documents do not regulate the thickness, color and transparency of glass. However, there are safety requirements that prescribe the use of materials that do not pose a threat to human health. Therefore, manufacturers equip aluminum doors with special glass with increased strength. These include:
- reinforced glass, into the thickness of which metal threads are inserted;
- tempered glass, which has undergone additional heat treatment;
- glass covered with a shockproof film (triplex).
Combined options are possible. For example, for the purpose of increased protection against vandalism, reinforced glass is covered with a layer of polymer film. But it is forbidden to use glass with fittings or triplex in fire doors.
As a rule, a double-glazed window is attached to the sash with special clips with rubber seals. This protects the ends of the glass from rubbing against the metal to which it is sensitive.
Photo gallery: aluminum doors with glass
Frosted glass entrance doors on an aluminum frame will provide light penetration into the room and protect from prying eyes
Shop entrance doors with impact-resistant glazing - reliable protection against attacks by vandals
An external door with reinforced glass structure, decorated with a binding, is not only a worthy example of an immortal classic, but also a faithful guardian of the house
Sliding aluminum doors can be a highlight of the interior
Hinged aluminum doors
The swing opening principle is the most common. The vast majority of doors with this design. The sash is opened by pressing on the leaf and moving it around the axis of rotation, which is fixed on the door frame.
Entrance doors with a swing opening mechanism are often installed in shopping, educational, office centers and other places with high traffic
Distinguish between single and double doors of the swing type. The first ones consist of one opening sash, the second - of two. Sometimes combined options are used, consisting of one movable sash and the second, fixed motionless. It is opened only if necessary, the rest of the time it serves as part of the doorway.
For the correct operation of swing doors, the selection of attachments and adjustment of the adherence of the leaf to the frame is of great importance. The sash weight must be evenly distributed on the hinges, so they need to be installed in a dynamic balance.
The installation of swing doors requires accuracy and careful adjustment of the position of the leaves inside the door frame.
Swinging aluminum doors
The swing door is ideal for crowded places where movement is carried out in one or more directions at the same time. These places are:
- Metro stations;
- large shopping centers, supermarkets;
- administrative complexes, libraries;
- arenas of sports stadiums.
A characteristic feature of swing doors is the ability of the sash to move freely in different directions. In contrast to the swing structure, where the door always opens in one direction, and the door leaf has a stop in the frame, the swing doors open 180 ° relative to the fastening axis and do not have a stop. With the help of door closers, which are installed in the hinges, the sash always returns to its original position.
Being able to open in both directions for the passage of people, swing doors are successfully used in public places.
Pendulum doors are available in single or double doors. Their installation differs from the installation of a conventional swing door, and the installer will need special skills and theoretical training.
Swing doors made of aluminum alloys have a number of irrefutable advantages:
- ease of management;
- long service life;
- minimum load on supporting structures.
Video: installation of swing doors
Sliding aluminum doors
The sliding door design is widely used in rooms with limited doorway space. Where it is difficult to install a swing door, sliding doors are the optimal solution. However, such doors cannot be installed everywhere. For example, it cannot be mounted in a narrow corridor.
Sliding glass doors with an aluminum frame, installed at the entrance to the terrace, do not take up space when opening, provide an excellent view, allow sunlight to penetrate inside, and reliably protect from the wind in bad weather
A feature of the sliding design is the door leaf opening mechanism. If in the swing version the leaf is opened by pressing on one of its sides, then here you need to move the sash by moving it along the suspension guides.
Video: sliding aluminum doors in the apartment
Sliding aluminum doors
Sliding doors are a very elegant solution to the problem of saving space. This type of door is made from various materials, including aluminum.
Sliding doors look very much like sliding doors, but differ in the opening mechanism
The sliding door opening mechanism is a rocker system built into the frame, along which the door leaf moves. The sliding door leaf along the guide chute moves on roller wheels that act as a fulcrum, while sliding doors are deprived of this.
The installation of the frame is distinguished by the additional work of installing the roller mechanism.
The guide rails are made of a metal "P" -shaped profile. Inside there is a suspension that moves along the longitudinal axis on roller bearings.
Diagram of the structure of the guide suspension of sliding doors
Sliding doors are installed in places where reliability and strength are needed, however, when operating such doors, it should be remembered that some designs require periodic lubrication of suspension elements. It is recommended to use the lubricants specified in the technical data sheet.
Aluminum doors with telescopic frame
An aluminum telescopic frame is a modern solution to the problem of installing doors in non-standard conditions. It is intended for installation in various premises, where there is no possibility (or desire) to adjust the thickness of the opening to the size of the existing doors. The width and height of the box varies between 25-50 mm. The canvases are selected from any known materials, the thickness is limited to 40 mm.
The basic structure of the telescopic door frame
Inside the telescopic frame, there is a porch, thanks to which the door can be installed in the opening without additional preparation and finishing work. The color is chosen depending on the general background or design preferences. Basic metallic and anodized colors are available.
This type of door frame is recognized as universal and is suitable for installation:
- in office premises;
- in hotels;
- in trading establishments;
- in sports and game complexes.
Video: the process of assembling and installing the telescopic box
Smoke tight aluminum doors
Depending on the location and purpose of the doorway, the requirements for the doors may expand. In addition to soundproofing properties, doors serve the interests of fire safety and can become an obstacle to fire and smoke. To do this, they are equipped with additional options - special sealing gaskets, which emit a large amount of foam when the temperature rises. Expanding, the seals seal the gaps around the perimeter of the door leaf and prevent the penetration of smoke and carbon monoxide. In addition, foam tends to emit carbon dioxide, which contributes to the damping of the flame.
A glass fire door with an aluminum profile is an excellent option for public spaces: it does not melt, does not burn, does not let smoke and fire through, and thanks to its transparency, it makes it possible to notice a fire that has started inside the premises in time
If the door is initially designed as a fire break, the structure is reinforced with cavities, inside of which basalt wool or gypsum fiber boards are placed. According to the current regulations, the smoke permeability of the door is certified after passing the tests. The product is assigned a fire resistance class, denoted by a letter of the Latin alphabet, and the smoke resistance index is expressed in numbers. For example, the LS15 mark means that the door will be impervious to fire and smoke for 15 minutes.
The smoke-tight aluminum door has a fire-resistant handle that does not heat up during a fire, which eliminates the risk of burns on contact with it
Rolled aluminum doors
In garages, small shops and private house building, it is very convenient to use roll-up, roller shutter doors. Their device is a combination of a flexible sash, consisting of narrow metal segments, and a frame along which the canvas moves. The use of aluminum and its alloys in the manufacture of roller shutter doors has made a kind of technological revolution. Previously, in the production of roller shutters, wooden slats impregnated with fire retardants were used. But with the advent of aluminum, the situation has improved dramatically: the structure has gained lightness and fire-fighting characteristics, its strength and durability have increased.
Rolling (roller shutter) doors made of aluminum, used in the garage, are easy to use and do not require significant maintenance costs
The device of the roller shutter door mechanism is a rotating shaft on which the door leaf is wound. The drive can be manual or electric. In some cases, a counterweight system is used to facilitate the control of the sash.
The roll-up door mechanism is installed in the upper slope of the door with all subsequent types of finishing
It is recommended to service roller shutters at least once a year. The integrity of the links connecting the lamellas is checked, and the absence of shaft deformation, and the support bearings are lubricated.
Folding aluminum doors
It is still a rare but promising type of door. The canvas of this design is folded like an accordion. The assembled sash takes up a minimum amount of space and is very compact.
Folding doors can have from two to five folding sections
Can be installed:
- in libraries;
- in canteens;
- in wardrobes;
- in showcases.
When installing "books", additional hinges are installed, connecting the sashes to each other. The lower and upper guides must be located on the same axis, otherwise the resulting misalignment will very quickly lead to door failure.
Video: folding doors
Manufacturing of aluminum doors
The production of aluminum doors is a complex technological process that cannot be repeated at home. However, if there is a desire and understanding of the installation rules, you can independently assemble aluminum doors. This will require aluminum profiles, fasteners, fittings and a leaf that will serve as a door leaf. You can assemble all this separately, or you can order it from a company specializing in the manufacture of aluminum profiles. With the correct calculation of the length and width of the door frame, the price of the kit will be more than affordable.
Materials Required to Assemble an Aluminum Sliding Door
The dimensions of profiles and fasteners are calculated depending on specific conditions.
Installation and assembly of aluminum doors
The correct functioning of the doors is 90% dependent on adherence to the installation standards. There are regulatory documents that regulate the quality of installation work when installing a door:
- GOST 26602.3–99;
- SNiP 21-01-97.
According to their provisions, the installation of the door is carried out in compliance with the basic rules for the installation of supporting structures. In this case, the following procedure is followed:
Preparation of the door opening. If installation is carried out in a building in use and it is necessary to remove the old door, complete dismantling of the latter, including the door leaf, frame and fastening means, should be carried out. The vacant opening must be cleaned of old plaster, mineral wool, which served as a heater, residues of polyurethane foam, etc.
It is necessary to completely free the doorway from the old door and fasteners
Geometrical markings are made to install a new door frame. At this stage, it is important to observe strictly vertical and horizontal bindings for installing doors. The maximum error allowed at a height of 2 meters is 2 mm. In the horizontal plane, the distortion of the door axis should not exceed 1 mm. A laser construction level is considered to be the best assistant in marking the door frame.
Marking before installing the aluminum door is carried out using a hydraulic level or a construction laser level
- The nearest space around the doorway must be free of foreign objects and debris. This is necessary to adjust the movement of the door leaf, as well as for free access of installers to the work site. The site is cleared in advance, before the delivery of the door frame components.
The frame is fastened in accordance with the markings. The fixation of stationary elements is carried out using anchor devices. It is not recommended to fix the box with dowel-nails or screws. If a fire breaks out, the plastic seals melt and the door can fall out.
Pre-fixation of the box is carried out using wooden or plastic wedges
The door leaf is installed. One edge of the sash is attached to the awnings, while the other moves freely inside the frame. At this stage, the suspension loops are adjusted. The installer must set the level of the canvas in such a way that when it is opened it does not spontaneously slam shut. The door must remain where the user's hand stopped it.
The door leaf is fixed to the frame with hinges
After adjustment, the final fixation of the frame inside the opening is carried out. Slots and gaps are filled with polyurethane foam or sand-cement mortar. All voids and cavities are removed with filler. The connection to the frame becomes uniform and monolithic.
With the help of polyurethane foam or sand-cement mortar, the voids between the frame and the wall masonry are filled
The door frame is being finished. Door accessories are installed: door closers, door handles, locks, eyes. Platbands are attached along the perimeter of the box.
The platband should hide all cosmetic defects remaining after installing the frame in the doorway
Video: dismantling and installing doors in the apartment
Accessories for aluminum doors
The doors are controlled using fittings - additional attachments. It is with its help that the door can be closed, opened and fixed in a certain position.
The main elements of the fittings:
- Locks. The most general classification divides them into overhead, mounted, mortise. But in fact, there are many types of lock designs. Experts distinguish between lever locks, screwless locks, flat locks, box locks, cylindrical locks, and bolt locks. In addition, in practice, unilateral locks are often used - they open only on one side, although in essence they are mortise. Remote control locks, similar to car locks, are operated by a self-powered key fob. There are combination locks, rack and pinion locks, disc locks, etc. Modern science is looking for new ways to increase the reliability of locks every day. Experienced experts advise to install European-made cylindrical locks, protected by an armored plate and a protective plate from drilling. This applies primarily to the front doors, while the interior doors do not need such expensive protection and are equipped with ordinary mortise locks of average quality and a simple unlocking mechanism.
Cylinder locks are one of the most common and affordable
- Loops. There are two types: visible and invisible. The first are located outside, the second are hidden by the door leaf and frame. Distinguish between right and left hinges. When buying, be sure to pay attention to this, since they are different. There are also universal hinges. They are suitable for any direction of door leaf opening. The size of the hinges should correspond to the weight of the sash: the greater its mass, the longer the hinges are selected.
Diagram of a hinge for an aluminum door
- Espagnolettes are locking elements that are used to fix one of the leaves on a one-and-a-half (or two-floor) door in a stationary state. The latch mechanism is simple, but the products have their own types, which are classified according to installation criteria. Locks can be overhead, mortise and built-in. They are made from both metal and plastic. The advantage of the overhead latch is its versatility - with the help of screws, rivets, welding and glue, it can be installed on any type of door. To install the mortise valves, it is necessary to prepare a groove in the "body" of the web. Of course, this cannot be done in glass and metal doors. Built-in latches are mounted in a channel cut at the end of the door leaf. It is often called a butt latch for this.
Overhead latch for doors, which is a latch, can be made in antique style in copper, brass, steel and aluminum
- Door handles are one of the main door controls used to open and close the sash. Handles are rotary (knob), push and stationary. Knobs are very easy to install and therefore retain the palm tree in sales. They are comfortable, aesthetically pleasing and are most often used in bathrooms, storage rooms, kitchens and other office premises. Designed to work in doors with a thickness of 30 to 45 mm. Lever handles are more often used for installation in interior door leaves. They are equipped with a latch and a lock, which allows, if necessary, to restrict access to certain areas. Stationary door handles are very diverse and structurally simple: they have nothing to do with locks or other locking devices,and their sole purpose is to allow the user to conveniently push or pull the door towards him.When purchasing a door handle, you need to pay attention to the equipment and fasteners: the length of the screws must correspond to the thickness of the door leaf, otherwise you will have to look for other screws. It will not hurt to check the course of the tongue. It should move freely and hide inward along its entire length. The elasticity of the push spring can be checked manually by pressing the tab with your fingers.
Today, for any door, you can choose the fittings that match the style, including those with carving, inlay, aging effect, because beauty is in the details
- It is worth paying close attention to the seals supplied with the door leaf. The tightness of the fit of the sash to the frame depends on the seal, and this has a direct effect on the sound and thermal insulation. Since the seal is subjected to repeated loads every day, the material from which it is made must be of high quality, elastic, without holes and breaks. It is necessary to check the package contents at the time of purchase, comparing the actual contents of the package with the passport data.
The material of the seal should be of high quality, elastic and quickly return to its original shape when deformed
All accessories are selected in the same style and color, harmoniously fitting into the overall picture. Antique style elements of the door look very impressive: bronze and inlaid door linings, handles, locks.
A door equipped with these devices and mechanisms becomes a reliable guard of a house or apartment, and the door leaf control becomes comfortable and convenient.
The service life of the door depends on the quality level of the fittings installed
Video: hardware for doors
Repair and adjustment of aluminum doors
Most often during operation, door hinges suffer. This is associated with the poor quality material from which they are made, or with the wrong selection of their size. If you do not notice in time that the hinges are loose, over time the door leaf will begin to loosen, move, and the locks will jam.
Here are the criteria for the correct operation of the door suspension:
- opening and closing is easy, easy;
- the canvas retains the position in which it was left (except for doors equipped with a closer);
- the sash adheres to the frame evenly along the entire perimeter;
- absence of any friction between the door leaf and the door frame;
- there are no obvious gaps and displacements of the door relative to the axis of its installation.
If one of the items on the list is "lame", it is necessary to adjust the door hinge. This can save her from complete or partial destruction.
Concealed door hinges, providing a high level of burglary protection, can be adjusted without removing the door leaf
Adjusting the hinges of aluminum doors
Hidden door hinges are the most convenient to adjust. They have three screws. Each one adjusts one of the parameters: height, width of the door leaf landing, as well as fit. The adjustment is made with a hexagon, which is usually supplied with the hinges and has the shape of the letter "L". Undesirable deviation of the web from the standard position is removed by rotating the adjusting screws.
Location of adjusting screws on Centro and NT doors
The process of adjusting hidden hinges consists of several stages:
- plastic overlays are removed from the hinges;
- in order to adjust the door leaf in height, the same gaps are set at the bottom and top of the leaf;
- the web is aligned relative to the box with the establishment of a gap;
- adjust the door by pressure, achieving uniform adherence of the door leaf to the frame;
the overlays are installed in place.
The technical documentation for each model describes in detail the steps to adjust the position of the door leaf and, following the instructions, you can always achieve the desired result
Video: how to adjust the WX buttonhole by pressure
Unfortunately, not all hinges are adjustable. If the door is equipped with non-adjustable hinges, they must be replaced promptly.
According to experts' forecasts, in the foreseeable future, the trend towards an increase in the share of aluminum doors in total production will continue. This means that sooner or later such doors will be in every home, because a door made of aluminum alloys is a faithful defender of home comfort and a reliable guardian of property from intruders.