Table of contents:

Raspberry Krasa Russia: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Raspberry Krasa Russia: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Raspberry Krasa Russia: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Raspberry Beauty of Russia 2022, December

Raspberry Krasa Russia - large-fruited dessert

raspberry beauty of russia
raspberry beauty of russia

Raspberry-berry beckoned us … One of the most delicious and desirable berries in the garden - raspberry - grows almost everywhere in Russia and the countries of the former USSR. She is invariably loved and appreciated for such valuable properties as sweetness, aroma, and, no doubt, usefulness. Compared to other berry bushes, raspberries are not so difficult in agricultural technology, but in the hands of experienced and skillful ones, they give excellent harvest indicators. But a lot, of course, also depends on the variety! One of the distinctive and popular varieties today is Krasa Rossii.


  • 1 Variety history
  • 2 Variety description

    • 2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
    • 2.2 Yield and profitability of raspberries in clarity
  • 3 Landing features

    • 3.1 Timing and methods of landing

      • 3.1.1 Method 1: apical bends
      • 3.1.2 Method 2: cuttings
      • 3.1.3 Cutting raspberries: video guidelines
      • 3.1.4 Method 3: root suckers
      • 3.1.5 Other types of planting raspberries
    • 3.2 Preparation of planting material and site
    • 3.3 General advice for landing
    • 3.4 Choosing soil for raspberries
    • 3.5 How do I choose good seedlings?
  • 4 The process of planting raspberries

    4.1 Photo of the planting process

  • 5 Raspberry care

    • 5.1 Cropping
    • 5.2 Pruning raspberries for the winter
    • 5.3 Watering
    • 5.4 Shelter for the winter
    • 5.5 Top dressing

      5.5.1 How does excess / lack of elements in the soil affect raspberries

  • 6 Diseases and pests

    • 6.1 Table of typical diseases and pests of the variety and control measures
    • 6.2 Pests and diseases of raspberries in photographs
  • 7 Harvesting

    • 7.1 Ways of storing berries
    • 7.2 Harvesting raspberries
  • 8 Reviews about the Kras of Russia variety

Variety history

The Kras of Russia variety was bred in 1990 at the Institute of Gardening and Nursery by Professor V.V. Kichina. Then in Moscow they tried to cross two worthy varieties that differ among their "relatives" in high fertility, size and agricultural technology - these are the varieties Maroseyka and Mirage. Separately, they fell short of high marks. But their daughter hybrid, the Beauty of Russia, receives only the highest score from gardeners.

Beauty of Russia
Beauty of Russia

Berries of the variety are large, even, heavy

Description of the variety

The plant is medium-sized from one and a half to two meters, rather compact, does not give a lot of root growth. About five root suckers per season. However, the shoot-forming ability is sufficient. Forms up to 11 replacement shoots per bush. Without thorns, tall, tall, thickened, flexible, strong, when bent, they are not fragile. Light pubescence and waxy bloom can be seen on the stems.

Raspberry bushes
Raspberry bushes

Elongated fruits and tall stems with large leaves characteristic of the variety

The shoots on which the berry is formed are powerful branches with about 20 fruits. With abundant and correct feeding, a larger number of berries can be born on the bush. This variety is not without reason called a heavyweight among large-fruited raspberries. The fact is that the weight of one berry can reach 12 grams. The smallest fruit weight is 4 grams. But basically this is an exception to the rule, since the Beauty of Russia forms a bountiful and good harvest. With high agricultural technology, the berry is large and very large by the standards of breeders.

Thomas fruit is conical, regular, elongated. The color is deep crimson or bright red, without intense gloss. Along the entire length of the stem, there are corrugated leaves of dark green in the middle and downward, light green at the crown of the flowers.

This raspberry is of average ripening period, gives at least 5-6 harvests per season, not remontant. The Beauty of Russia bears fruit from early July to mid-August, and sometimes longer. Since it produces a crop for a long time, and the berries are weighty, the average yield of the Kras of Russia variety is above the norm, rare for raspberries, and abundant. Blooming occurs together at different times of summer (wave-like), the flowers are very large, unusual for ordinary varieties.

The fruits are universal: they are suitable both for fresh dietary nutrition, and for canning and long-term storage.

Raspberry fruit
Raspberry fruit

Harvest from the Beauty of Russia can be harvested up to six times per season

Dessert taste, sweet, pronounced, has a high score in the tasting assessment (4.7 out of 5). Differs in gentle sourness, which brings piquancy to the bouquet of taste. There are not many seeds, the berries are juicy, dense, fragrant.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

The beauty of Russia has such positive qualities as:

  • Yield
  • Large-fruited
  • Moderate winter hardiness (up to minus 26 degrees)
  • Drought resistance (berry does not dry in the sun, does not bake)
  • Genetic stability (does not degenerate)
  • High taste
  • Resistance to typical fungal and viral diseases of the culture


  • Under poor weather conditions and improper care, prone to chlorosis, leaf mosaic, brown spot of stems and gray mold
  • Requires shelter for the winter (due to icing and breakage of branches) and a garter to the trellis net, since the stems are tall and powerful
  • Even slightly overripe large berries do not tolerate transportation, they are stored literally for several hours!

The yield and profitability of raspberries in clarity

Landing features

Timing and methods of landing

Raspberries are planted in one or more of three ways: apical branches, green or woody cuttings and root suckers

Raspberry planting methods
Raspberry planting methods

You need to choose a method based on the convenience of work and weather conditions

Method 1: apical bends

This method is used mainly for large-fruited varieties, the branches of which reach two meters in height. By the end of summer, they begin to bend to the ground, which greatly simplifies the task of landing. In addition, the plant itself already forms the top in such a way that the survival of the shoot becomes easy and not laborious in the process of work for a person.

Raspberry tops planting scheme
Raspberry tops planting scheme

Reproduction of raspberries by apical branches is carried out at the end of summer

By the beginning of autumn, the tops of the raspberry stems become like a loop with light green small leaves. This means that the raspberries are ready to propagate by the branches of the upper parts of the shoot. During this period, you need to place the top in fertile soil, gently bending down the stem. At the end of autumn, such a branch will already give roots.

Rooting a branch
Rooting a branch

The shoot must be carefully bent and fixed

Basically, such plants are left until spring for better survival and strengthening. But it all depends on the degree of rooting. It can be transplanted together with a lump of earth in a separate place at a decent distance (at least one and a half meters) from the mother plant.

Method 2: cuttings

This method is suitable for those who want to multiply raspberries quickly. True, you will need to prepare in advance.

Cuttings are prepared from summer, in cold and cloudy weather. Under the influence of "shock therapy" (namely, worsening of the weather), raspberries tend to produce small green shoots near the main stems. These small shoots already have young light green leaves. Such a stalk must be dug up and cut off with a pruner (or knife) slightly below ground level (1.5–2 cm).

Before planting, cut cuttings are placed in a growth regulator solution for horticultural crops or for ordinary vegetable crops for several hours. The green stalk should be about 7-10 cm.

Reproduction of raspberries by cuttings
Reproduction of raspberries by cuttings

Green cuttings take root well in loose, humus-rich soil

After this procedure, the cuttings are planted in fertilized soil at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other. I cover them with foil and check them daily. With healthy development, cuttings give roots, the leaves are poured, the shoots lengthen and thicken. The best care for seedlings will be timely watering, airing and a fog sensor (installation for the formation of fog).

During the growth process, the seedlings can no longer be watered as often as in the beginning. The most important thing now is to ensure good ventilation of the temporary greenhouse.

After three to four weeks, the plant can be dug up along with a clod of earth and planted in a permanent place. Do not forget to darken the seedling at first and water it well. In less than a couple of weeks, he will begin to gain strength and grow again.

Root cuttings should be harvested in late autumn, late September and early October. For such a planting, only powerful and strong roots are suitable. Their thickness should be at least 2 cm. Such cuttings are cut into small pieces and placed in the cold until spring, covered with sand or covered with a thick layer of moss.

As soon as the heat comes, they get them, carefully select not spoiled, healthy, well-preserved hard cuttings and plant them in a permanent place or in a greenhouse for growing. The distance between them should be about 8-10 cm. It is better to keep the temperature within

Raspberry root cuttings
Raspberry root cuttings

Cuttings 8-10 cm long with a young shoot

24–26 ° С with humidity values ​​of 90–92%.

Similarly, you can propagate raspberries in the spring. That is, cut off root cuttings in the spring. It is necessary to cut off new, emerging young shoots. They are also cut to 8-10 cm, the cuts must be even. It is good if the seedlings have several buds.

After soaking in a root stimulant, the cuttings are planted in fertile light soil. By the fall, you will have grown and rather strong raspberry bushes. In general, with good care, they can already harvest for the next season.

Raspberry cuttings: video guidelines

Method 3: root suckers

Another method of rapid breeding of non-salable raspberries is by grafting with stiff suckers or, in other words, root suckers.

Root offspring breeding scheme
Root offspring breeding scheme

Raspberries always give birth next to the mother bush

Near the adult stem, there are almost always small, but already grown shoots with leaves and buds. They also have their own roots. Therefore, to deposit them from the mother plant, you just need to dig up a seedling with a clod of earth and plant it in open ground in a permanent place. It is necessary to provide the new plant with sufficient watering and protection from the sun.

Other types of planting raspberries

There are also varieties of planting raspberries, but they are more laborious and difficult. This is seed cultivation as well

microclonal (laboratory) reproduction.

Raspberry seeds
Raspberry seeds

Propagation of raspberries by seeds is one of the most troublesome and patience methods.

Preparation of planting material and site

It is best to plant raspberries in rows, leaving a distance of 2–2.5 m between them. Since the Kras of Russia variety is quite powerful and tall, you should leave the maximum gap between plantings.

It is sufficient to observe an interval of 50-60 cm between the plants themselves

Raspberry fruit
Raspberry fruit

Comparison of the size of the raspberry fruit Krasa Rossii

Summer is a good time to remove all excess shoots. Especially if their height has reached 25 cm in height. Thickening, as well as rare plantings, does not have a very good effect on the fruiting of raspberries. With a dense planting, the berries lose their excellent taste and age very quickly on the bush, in the second case, the yield as a whole falls.

General advice for landing

  • Prepare organic and potash fertilizers. Urea is applied at the rate of 6-8 kg per one hundred square meters. It's a good idea to feed the soil with diluted last year's mullein and wood ash. And also in the spring urea is scattered in the rows between raspberry plantings. Potash fertilizers are applied at the rate of 3-5 kg ​​per hundred square meters, they do it at the beginning or end of the season.
  • In order to avoid diseases and the reproduction of pests, fresh manure is not introduced.
  • Despite the differences of opinion among gardeners, it is a good idea to apply nitrogen fertilizers to stimulate branching. A rich harvest is formed on the lateral shoots of the Krasa Rossii variety, therefore this cannot negatively affect the final result. But the excess also has a bad effect, so there should be a measure for everything.
  • Avoid planting raspberries in low areas and places where water accumulates, that is, stagnation forms. The shrub does not like musty, non-breathing soil. The roots will begin to die off, rot will appear.
  • Excessive application of organic fertilizers makes raspberry tissues watery, which negatively affects winter hardiness. Due to the excessive amount of water in the roots, the plant will simply freeze out at low temperatures.

Choosing a soil for raspberries

How do I choose good seedlings?

Pay attention to how many shoots are formed on the seedling: it is great if it is two or three mature shoots of medium thickness. Large bushes take root with difficulty. The first step is to examine the raspberries for diseases. Necrosis, peeling, stains and woody build-ups should immediately put you off buying. Also check the cleanliness and evenness of the cuts: there should be no rot or obvious blackening.

Raspberry seedlings
Raspberry seedlings

Your future harvest depends on the choice of healthy and strong seedlings.

When choosing seedlings, pay attention to the conditions of their maintenance. For the root system of this plant, it is detrimental to stay in plastic bags or in the sun for a long time. You won't notice any obvious root disturbances, but they will die within a few hours.

That's right, when the roots of the seedling are carefully wrapped in wet cloth, the plant is sold along with the clod of earth in which it grew. It is even better if the raspberries are in a large container with well-buried roots.

Raspberry planting process

Having chosen a seedling, prepare in advance the planting site for it, as well as the soil.

There are two types of planting raspberries: in the form of a bush for 10-12 plants and in a trench with wide aisles of 1-2 bushes

In the first case, you need to dig a hole half a meter by half a meter, fill it with any drainage in the form of a small hill. Next, we put the bush on a hill and cover it with earth, previously fertilized. Do not drop the root collar in, it should be at the level of the soil or slightly higher (2-3 cm).

In the second variant of planting - dig long trenches half a meter deep, about 70 cm wide. The distance between the rows of raspberries. The trenching method is more popular, as it makes it easy to care for raspberries and quickly pick berries thanks to a sparse planting.

In autumn, raspberries are planted in September-October. In the spring in April-May

So, before landing in any of the above ways, take a number of activities:

  1. To prevent root rotting, treat them with proven and powerful fungicides, such as: "Term", "Flint" or "Ridomil".
  2. Before planting, the seedlings are cut 20-30 cm. That is why you should not buy tall seedlings - it makes no sense.
  3. In a pit or trench, in addition to drainage, it is necessary to lay compost, biohumus and superphosphate. Lay out in layers.
  4. In order to reliably root the plantings, it is necessary to put pegs in a pit or trench and tie a cord or rope in it that secures the seedling to the peg.
  5. Arrange the bushes in pairs - this will make the plantings stronger and prevent the seedlings from freezing in the harsh winter.
  6. Tie the seedling carefully with a string or rope to the peg and secure it in position.
  7. Cover with earth up to the root collar. The soil is mixed with organic matter and mineral fertilizers.
  8. Spill the pit or trench well with water. 1 bucket is enough for 1 bush.

Photo of the planting process

Landing scheme
Landing scheme

Illustration for planting raspberries in a trench

Trench landing method
Trench landing method

Trenches can be arbitrarily long, half a meter deep, with a distance between rows of 1.5-2 meters

Planting raspberries
Planting raspberries

Sprinkle with earth no higher than the lower bud on the stem

Saplings garter
Saplings garter

The garter will help protect raspberries from breakage and trampling, as well as provide light transmission between shoots

Raspberry care


This procedure is carried out in order to preserve the large-fruited crop, its quantity. Not the last place is occupied by such reasons as aesthetics and convenience of fruit collection. It is ugly and inconvenient when the berry field turns into impassable thickets. Pruning is carried out every year, and to obtain the maximum yield, several times per season.

So, pruning in the spring is the removal of excess shoots, as well as weak, frozen and broken stems during the winter season. We cut off the bushes caught in the frost to healthy buds, but the extra shoots - at the very root. We try not to leave a hemp so that an infection or pest cannot get into the cut.

The height of the cut raspberry stems should remain within 1.5 meters. Pruning the branches too much will reduce the yield, but will significantly increase the size of the berries per bush. And what is important, fruiting will stretch over time.

Pruning in summer implies the obligatory removal of the growth that does not produce fruit, diseased shoots, as well as with wilted tops and flowers

It is also necessary to remove underdeveloped, weak root suckers. They will still be formed in sufficient quantity until autumn. And in summer they only take moisture and nutrition from the main plant. It is best to remove them with a shovel in order to get rid of them at the root, and not on the surface.

Raspberry pruning
Raspberry pruning

Correct pruning of raspberry bushes will allow you to increase yields

In autumn, pruning is carried out 2-3 weeks before frost and the onset of constant cold weather. After harvesting, inspect the bushes and remove the two-year-olds that have produced their own. Do not touch strong young shoots until spring. Sometimes you will sort them out warmly, leaving 7-10 shoots per bush.

Of course, it is worth removing all infected, weak and underdeveloped plants. Do not miss viral diseases that can cool plantings in the spring, overwintering in a safe place: in the cuts, roots, in the necks of the kidneys.

Cut branches must be burned off site.

Pruning raspberries for the winter


In raspberries, the roots are formed at a distance of 40-60 cm from the trunk to a depth of at least 10 cm. Basically, the depth of root growth is 40–60 cm, which is considered the superficial location of the root system. Therefore, even for drought-resistant varieties, timely good watering is desirable. There is no need to test the plant for resistance, risking the harvest. Water must be watered at least 4 times per season.

Sprinkling (method of watering on top of the leaves) is undesirable for raspberries. This can cause bush disease, most often purple spot, fruit rot. Water at the root, carefully, without eroding the soil.

Watering raspberries
Watering raspberries

Sprinkling for raspberries is undesirable

Shelter for the winter

In winters with little snow, pruning in the fall can be omitted. Before wintering, the shrub should be tied in bunches and tied to a support.

In regions with frost and severe winds, it is recommended to bend down the raspberries and cover them carefully. Despite the winter hardiness declared for the Kras of Russia variety, in the northern latitudes and in Siberia with long winters, you risk losing part of the raspberry tree. Therefore, take care of the shelter in advance.

Raspberry shelter
Raspberry shelter

Shoot bunch and bend will provide integrity and frost protection

  • Loosen up between rows and remove excess debris and fallen leaves to avoid contamination.
  • Mulch the soil around the bushes with peat or old sawdust.
  • The bending of the stems in the fall is done like this: they connect two bushes and tie them, tilt the tops, pin them with staples or sprinkle them with earth.
  • The resulting arc of stems is thrown over with pine needles, fluffy forest soil, covering material, and the bush is allowed to fall asleep on top of the snow. Under such a shelter, nothing will freeze.

Top dressing

How does excess / lack of elements in the soil affect raspberries

  • Lack of nitrogen: growth slows down greatly, the leaves become smaller, lose their color (acquire a brown color), the root system develops poorly, and the yield decreases greatly.
  • Excess nitrogen: all the strength of the plant is spent on the growth of stems and leaves, the fruits do not have time to ripen. The shoots themselves are very susceptible to damage at low temperatures, even during the first autumn frosts.
  • Lack of potassium: the leaves become shallow, become dark brown, crooked, spots with dead tissue are visible between the veins.
  • Lack of phosphorus: underdeveloped, weak and thin stems, leaves have a purple tint, quickly fly around.
  • Lack of magnesium: the leaves age prematurely, do not stick to the stem and yellowness appears unevenly - from the middle to the edge. The entire shoot looks naked, weak and sluggish.
Feeding raspberries
Feeding raspberries

Fertilizing will give raspberries everything they need to grow and harvest.

Do not allow the condition of the plant to worsen and do not delay with fertilizing. It is best to use a complex of organic and mineral fertilizers, which are now easy to purchase at any garden store. Complex feeding is rich in humic microelements and amino acids, so necessary for raspberries. The proven fertilizers are: Master, Kemira, Rostkontsentrat, etc. Repeat the procedure every year, since during each season the plant takes nutrients from the soil, and some of them are washed out by rains and melted snow.

A special time to pay attention to: the formation of raspberry ovaries. Your harvest depends on how well the plant feels during this period. It is recommended to apply a slurry solution (proportion with water 1:10) at the rate of 1 bucket per 3 bush. Magnesium and boron are not the last in the "diet" of raspberries.

Diseases and pests

Consider common diseases and pests, as well as methods of elimination. Remember the important point, disease and pests are better prevented than eliminated. To do this, you need to take care of the berry and fertilize the soil (see recommendations above).

Table of typical diseases and pests of the variety and control measures

Disease / pest How does it manifest Control measures
Chlorosis and leaf mosaic In the middle of summer, the leaves on raspberries begin to turn yellow, become covered with spots of light and dark shades, the yield is sharply reduced. Unfortunately, no cure for chlorosis and mosaic has been invented. The best way to save a raspberry tree is to destroy shoots and bushes with affected leaves.
Brown (purple) spot of

stems and gray rot

Purple spots appear on the stem, the apogee of the disease occurs at the end of July. By autumn, brown spot affects the entire stems.

Gray rot is manifested by gray spots on the foliage, bloom with spores and rot on the fruit.

It is necessary to treat with 1% Bordeaux liquid (100 g of lime and 100 g of copper sulfate per 10 L of water), Nitrafen (250-300 g per 10 L) and Fitosporin (15 ml per 10 L).

Colloidal sulfur (30–40 g per 10 l) and Cineb (40 g per 10 l) are also used.

Raspberry beetle (larvae) The beetle feeds on leaves, inflorescences and raspberries. The whole bush suffers, the harvest is lost. Timely digging and loosening of the soil near the bushes. Treatment with manganese solution (10 g per 20 l of water) in the period between budding and fruit setting.
Raspberry and strawberry weevil It gnaws at the stalk, lays eggs in the buds and buds, the larvae damage them, which leads to a multiple decrease in yield. It is not recommended to plant raspberries and strawberries next to each other.

For the fight, Iskra-M preparations (10 ml per 10 l of water) are suitable before flowering and Karbofos (30 g per 5 l) of fruit removal.

Spider mite Dry white spots are noticeable on the foliage of raspberries - these are places where the mite has damaged tissues and sucked out juices. The leaves dry up, curl. Raspberry processing is carried out with such preparations as: Karbofos, colloidal sulfur, Metaphos (working solution of 10 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water).
Stem gall midge Young shoots are a place for oviposition of stem gall midge. The plant begins to dry out and die off. Timely digging of soil around the bushes and loosening under them in the off-season (spring, autumn). Digging depth of at least 15–20 cm.

Application of Karbofos and Actellik preparations (10 ml per 10 liters of water).

Raspberry pests and diseases in photos

Chlorosis of raspberries
Chlorosis of raspberries

Chlorosis of raspberries is a consequence of a lack of nutrients in the soil

Sheet mosaic
Sheet mosaic

Sheet mosaic is transferred with planting material

Purple or brown spotting
Purple or brown spotting

Brown spotting leads to cracking of damaged stems and death of the plant

Gray rot
Gray rot

Gray rot appears with prolonged excess moisture

Raspberry beetle
Raspberry beetle

Raspberry beetle eats shoots, leaves and fruits

Raspberry weevil
Raspberry weevil

Raspberry weevil sucks all the juices out of raspberries

Spider mite
Spider mite

Spider mite damages leaf plates by sucking juice from them


The stem gall midge lays the larvae in the shoots, killing the plant


The beauty of Russia gives 4-5 harvests per season. And this is in the period from the twenties of July to mid-August. The variety is not remontant, therefore, the berries will not ripen all summer until late autumn.

Harvested in cool dry weather. If you plan to transport raspberries or store them for a short time without freezing, pick them with the stalks.

The keeping quality of this raspberry is below average, its transportability is also not higher. You need to have time to collect sweet berries and prepare them for the winter in your favorite way.

  1. Freezing. Produced in clean cellophane bags or vessels, hermetically sealed and placed in a freezer or glacier. In this way, all the vitamins for which raspberries are so famous are preserved. First, wash the berries and peel them of the stalks.
  2. Drying. It is also the most sustainable harvesting method. You can use electric dryers, an oven or dry in the sun under a net. It is important to know the nuances of proper drying (temperature, duration, state to which it is necessary to dry, etc.) of raspberries, so as not to spoil the berries.
  3. Preserves and jams. Grinding berries with sugar or honey is a very popular way to stock up on dessert and healthy raspberries. Cooking raspberries, like other berries, is not recommended, since heat treatment kills all useful vitamins and trace elements, raspberries lose half of their healing properties.
  4. Making a marshmallow. To do this, you need to grind the berry with any vegetable or fruit (for example, zucchini or bananas) and distribute the mixture on special trays of an electric dryer. After 6-9 hours the marshmallow is ready. We twist it and send it to store in sealed plastic containers in a dark, cool place.

Berry storage methods

Dried raspberries
Dried raspberries

All vitamins are preserved in dried raspberries

Raspberry paste
Raspberry paste

Pastila is the best treat for children instead of candy

Freezing raspberries
Freezing raspberries

Before freezing, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse and turn the berries


The preservative in the jam is sugar or honey.

Grinding berries
Grinding berries

Grinding berries with sugar or honey, you can make delicious mashed potatoes or jam

Harvesting raspberries

Reviews of the Kras of Russia variety

We summarize the advantages: The beauty of Russia is winter-hardy, unpretentious, tasty. In comparison with remontant varieties, it loses in terms of the duration of crops and their transportability, but holds the bar in terms of the sum of adaptation and large-fruitedness indicators, as well as in the cultivation technique - it is not troublesome. The appearance is distinctive: the correct conical shape, large tasty grains, aromatic, impressive size with a bright color.

Comparing the pros and cons, we can conclude that the Beauty of Russia deserves the attention of gardeners and, like any culture, requires care and maintenance.

Popular by topic