Table of contents:
- Turgenevka: everything about growing a popular cherry variety
- What does Turgenevka cherry look like - description
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Planting procedure and preparation for it
- All the nuances of growing cherry in a garden plot
- Often hybrid diseases and pests
- When to harvest and how to use the crop
- Gardeners reviews
Video: Cherry Turgenevka: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Turgenevka: everything about growing a popular cherry variety
It is rare to find a garden without a cherry tree. This berry enjoys a well-deserved love for its taste and many health benefits. Thanks to the work of breeders, new hybrids are constantly appearing, but the old proven varieties do not give up their positions. Among the latter is the Turgenevka cherry, which was bred in the late 70s of the last century, but is still popular.
- 1 What does Turgenevka cherry look like - description
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
3 Landing procedure and preparation for it
- 3.1 Selecting a seedling
- 3.2 Suitable place for Turgenevka
- 3.3 Preparing the landing pit
- 3.4 Step by step instructions
- 3.5 Video: planting a cherry seedling correctly
4 All the nuances of growing cherry in a garden plot
- 4.1 Watering
- 4.2 Fertilization
- 4.3 Video: proper care of a cherry tree
- 4.4 Cropping
- 4.5 Video: Tips for pruning cherries
- 4.6 Preparing for winter
- 4.7 Video: how to whitewash a cherry tree correctly
5 Often hybrid diseases and pests
- 5.1 Table: diseases and pests characteristic of Turgenevka cherry
- 5.2 Photo gallery: diseases and pests that will have to be dealt with when growing Turgenevka cherries
- 6 When to harvest and how to use the crop
- 7 Reviews of gardeners
What does Turgenevka cherry look like - description
Cherry Turgenevka (the official name sounds like that, although in some nurseries the variety is found under the name "Turgenevskaya") - a hybrid that appeared as a result of free pollination of Zhukovskaya. The work began in the early 70s of the XX century. The authorship belongs to breeders TS Zvyagina, G.B. Zhdanova and A.F. Kolesnikova. Varietal traits were successfully fixed at the Oryol Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops.
The variety was entered into the State Register in 1979. It belongs to the mid-season category and is recommended for cultivation in the Central, Central Black Earth Region and the North Caucasus.
The tree at Turgenevka is not too high - 3–3.5 m. The crown is wide-pyramidal, stretching upwards. The thickening is average. The leaves are large, strongly reminiscent of sweet cherries. The bark on young shoots is deep chocolate color, on old ones it is grayish-brown. The leaf buds are strongly bent away from the branches.
Turgenevka - a low cherry with a not too thickened crown
Blooming Turgenevka looks very impressive - fragrant white flowers literally stick around the branches
Turgenevka fruits have a classic shape for cherries, slightly resembling a heart. Their average weight is 5–5.5 g. For cherries this is very decent. Both the skin and the pulp are colored in a rich dark scarlet color. The stem is about 5 cm long, it does not separate well from the berry. The stone is small (8-10% of the fruit weight), light beige.
Turgenevka's berries are colored in a rich dark scarlet color, have a typical cherry shape.
The crop ripens in the first decade or closer to mid-July. It depends on the climate and the weather in summer. Up to 25 kg of fruits are removed from an adult tree, about half as much from a young tree (up to 10 years). Turgenevka bears fruit stably for 25-30 years. You can try cherries for the first time 4–5 years after planting a seedling in the ground.
Even fully ripe berries taste sour rather than sweet. Turgenevka is one of those varieties that are characterized as "an amateur". Children are more likely to give it up. Professional tasters rate the taste not too high - by 3.5–3.7 points out of 5. But in homemade preparations, this sourness is very appropriate. It gives jams, compotes, liqueurs a slight piquancy. At the same time, there is enough sugar in it - more than 11%. The problem is the high content of fruit acids (about 1.5%). This cherry is very much appreciated by culinary experts, both amateurs and professionals.
As a rule, there are so many berries on Turgenevka that under their weight the branches tend to the ground.
Turgenevka was positioned by the creators as a partially self-fertile variety, but without pollinating cherries, the fruit set can literally be counted on one hand. To get the maximum possible yields, the same "old deserved" hybrids are planted next to it - the cherries Lyubskaya, Vladimirskaya, Zhukovskaya, Molodezhnaya, Favorit, Griot Moskovsky, Rovesnitsa and so on.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Cherry Turgenevka has a number of undoubted advantages, which for almost fifty years have made it popular among gardeners:
- Unpretentiousness. The culture bears fruit stably in regions with different climatic conditions.
- Frost resistance. To a greater extent, this applies to wood and leaf buds, which easily tolerate cold temperatures down to -35 ° C. Flower buds are less fortunate - they often suffer from recurrent spring frosts. They also react poorly to sudden changes in temperature during the winter.
- Possibility of relatively long fresh storage and good transportability of berries. Turgenevka does not lose its presentable appearance, even when transported over long distances. The harvest can be kept for several weeks.
- Stable annual fruiting and high yield. Turgenevka has no seasons of "rest". The number of berries depends little on how warm and sunny the summer was.
- Early maturity and long term "productive" existence of the tree. The first cherries ripen 4–5 years after the seedling is planted. Turgenevka bears fruit for about 20-25 years.
- Quite good resistance to fungal diseases (subject to proper care). If you follow all the recommendations, you can almost completely exclude moniliosis and coccomycosis. Trees that have suffered from pathogenic fungi recover rather quickly.
One of the indisputable advantages of Turgenevka is its high yield.
However, the hybrid is not without significant disadvantages:
- Taste qualities of fruits. Turgenevka is more suitable for homemade preparations than for fresh consumption, especially if the harvest is a little ahead of schedule. However, in fairness it should be noted that preserves, jams, compotes and so on are amazingly tasty.
- Partial self-fertility. It would be more correct to call Turgenevka self-infertile. She needs 2-3 pollinating varieties. At the same time, sometimes there is simply not enough space on the site for several trees. In part, the situation can be saved by grafting a twig of another cherry on Turgenevka.
Planting procedure and preparation for it
In order for the cherry to bear fruit stably and abundantly, you need to approach its planting wisely, choosing the right seedling, a place for it and preparing a planting pit. In principle, this is not difficult. You just need to know what cherry prefers.
The best option is one- or two-year-old seedlings. The first looks like a stick, the second has 3-4 lateral shoots. Plants at the age of 3-4 years take root much worse. You should not rely on the principle of "size matters" and choose the tallest seedling with powerful shoots and leaves.
It is desirable that the cherry seedlings come from a nursery located in the same area as the garden plot, or to the north
You need to pay attention to the root system (developed, fibrous, roots at least 20-25 cm long), the height of the tree (90-110 cm) and the quality of the wood (elastic bark without stains, traces of mold and rot, on the cut the wood is white-green, and not beige or grayish, the tree bends, but does not break). It is desirable that the cherry has viable swelling buds.
Suitable place for Turgenevka
Like any cherry, Turgenevka loves warmth and sunlight. In the shade, the already not too sweet fruits become even more sour and ripen longer. The ideal place for her is the slope of a gentle hill, which is illuminated by the sun most of the day. It is advisable to take timely care of protection from the cold wind by providing a natural or artificial barrier at some distance from the tree, covering it from the north.
Turgenevka is shade-tolerant, but prefers warmth and sunlight
Turgenevka is not too demanding for the quality of the soil. She prefers light sandy or sandy loamy soils that allow moisture and air to pass through, with an acid-base balance closer to neutral (pH 5.5–7.0).
The only condition is that the place must be dry. Cherries cannot be planted where groundwater approaches the surface closer than 1–1.5 m. For the same reason, lowlands are not suitable, where moist cold air stagnates for a long time, and melt water in spring.
Planting pit preparation
Cherries can be planted both in spring and autumn. It depends on the climate in a particular region. In the so-called risky farming zones, the best time is from mid-April to early May. The ground has already warmed up enough, the threat of recurrent frosts is minimal. Over the summer, the tree will have time to adapt to new habitat conditions. In the warm southern regions, autumn planting is preferred.
The landing pit is always prepared in advance. If the procedure is planned for the spring - from autumn, otherwise - at least 15–20 days in advance. Cherry has a superficial root system, so 50-60 cm deep is enough. Diameter - 80-100 cm.
The first 15–20 cm of soil extracted from the pit is fertile sod. It is mixed with rotted manure or humus (7-10 l), potash (25-30 g) and phosphorus (90-100 g) fertilizers. Those who do not like chemicals can add wood ash (liter can). All this is poured back into the pit, which is covered with any material that does not allow water to pass through. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers, and even more fresh manure, cannot be applied.
All the nutrients and macronutrients necessary for the cherry are introduced into the planting pit in advance.
If the soil is not very suitable for Turgenevka, this can be corrected. 8-10 liters of coarse river sand are added to a heavy clay substrate. Excess acidity will help neutralize dolomite flour, slaked lime or crushed chalk (300-500 g).
When planting several cherries, the minimum distance between them is 3.5–4 m. It is advisable not to place apples and cherries next to them in order to avoid cross-pollination.
Planting a cherry seedling in the ground is no different from a similar procedure for other fruit trees. There is nothing complicated in it, but it will be more convenient for two.
Even a novice gardener can handle planting cherries
- The day before the proposed procedure, lower the roots into a container with settled water at room temperature. You can add a little potassium permanganate to it (for disinfection) or any biostimulant (to activate growth).
- Coat the roots with a slurry of powdered clay and fresh manure. Mix the mass thoroughly until smooth. In consistency, it is similar to thick sour cream. Dry the roots for 2-3 hours
- Slightly stepping back from the top of the earthen mound at the bottom of the pit, stick a support 35–40 cm higher than the seedling. Moisten the substrate (10-15 L of water).
- When the moisture is absorbed, place the tree at the bottom, straighten the roots that are bent up.
- Fill the hole with small portions of soil. Constantly monitor the position of the seedling - the root collar must not be allowed to sink into the soil. It should rise 5–8 cm above the substrate. Tamp the soil periodically. When finished, gently stamp it with your feet.
- Form an earthen roller 8–10 cm high, about 50 cm away from the trunk. Water the cherries (20–30 L).
- After about half an hour, mulch the tree trunk circle with peat chips, humus, freshly cut grass, sawdust.
- Tie the tree securely, but not too tightly to the support.
- Trim the side shoots, if any, completely. Shorten the central one by about a third.
If everything is done correctly, a tree planted in the ground looks like this
Video: planting a cherry seedling correctly
All the nuances of growing cherry in a garden plot
Cherry Turgenevka is quite unpretentious, but even she needs minimal care. And in order to regularly take off bountiful harvests, you will have to devote a lot of time and effort to the tree.
The newly planted Turgenevka is watered almost daily, all the time keeping the substrate in a slightly damp state, but not turning it into a swamp. For adult cherries, frequent but moderate watering, on the contrary, is harmful. It "compresses" the soil, which in this case allows oxygen to pass through much worse.
Cherry tolerates drought well, 3-4 waterings per season are enough for it. Each tree uses 50–70 liters of water. The soil must be moistened to a depth of 45-50 cm.
Turgenevka must be watered immediately after flowering, during the formation of fruit ovaries and 5-7 days after harvest. The last watering (the so-called moisture-charging) is carried out in the first decade of October and only if September is dry. Otherwise, cherries will get by with natural precipitation.
Each time after watering, the soil in the near-trunk circle is loosened to a depth of 8–10 cm, weeds are pulled out and the mulch layer is completely changed. As the tree grows, this area is gradually expanded.
Water is poured not under the roots, but into the ring grooves, if you wash off the substrate from them, they will quickly dry out
Water is not poured directly under the roots - it will wash off the substrate from them. Instead, 2–3 annular grooves are formed, the last of which approximately coincides in diameter with the crown. The distance between them is 50-60 cm.
Any stone fruit trees respond well to fertilizing with both organic and mineral fertilizers. If the planting pit has been prepared following all the recommendations, the cherries will have enough nutrients for the next season. The first time feeding will need to be applied only in the third summer of the seedling being in the open field.
Cherry responds well to fertilizing with both organic and mineral fertilizers
In early spring, before flowering, Turgenevka is fed with nitrogen. The soil in the trunk circle is dug up or well loosened, while distributing rotted manure or humus (15–20 l / m²). After 7-10 days, the tree is watered with a solution of nitrogen-containing fertilizer - 15–20 g of carbamide, ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate per 10 liters of water. A natural alternative is a water-diluted infusion of fresh cow dung or poultry manure. Foliar dressing at this time is ineffective - there are still too few leaves on the tree.
After flowering, special organic mixtures (for example, vermicompost) are introduced into the trunk circle, or the tree is watered 2-3 times with an interval of 3-5 days with an infusion of any greenery. Most commonly used nettle or dandelion leaves. You can carry out foliar dressing - spray the cherries with a solution of complex fertilizer for fruit trees (Agros, Novo-Firth, Absolut, Kemira-Lux, and so on).
Spraying a cherry tree with a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer has a positive effect on productivity and contributes to its proper development.
If the tree is growing slowly, it is sprayed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers 2-3 times per season starting from mid-July (after the end of fruiting) with an interval of 15-20 days. To enrich the soil with this macronutrient, any legumes are planted between the cherries (but not in the near-stem circle).
The last feeding is carried out in early autumn. The trunk circle is cleared. 35-40 g of potash and 70-80 g of phosphorus fertilizers are distributed on it in dry form. You can prepare a solution by diluting them in 10 liters of water. There are also complex preparations, for example, ABA, Autumn. A natural alternative is wood ash (0.5 l / m²). Once every 3 years, humus or rotted manure is distributed under the tree. If the soil is acidic, dolomite flour (300–400 g / m²) is added annually.
Video: proper care for a cherry tree
Cherries are highly prone to root growth. It needs to be removed regularly. At the same time, it retains varietal characteristics, therefore it can be used as planting material. Also, the trunk is completely cleaned to the height of the first tier of skeletal branches.
There are relatively few shoots at Turgenevka, the cherry itself is relatively low. Therefore, most often, a sparse-tiered crown is formed in it. The procedure takes 3-4 years, then the configuration only needs to be maintained.
On such a tree, the central shoot and 3-4 tiers of skeletal branches, 4-5 pieces in each, are clearly distinguished. The tiers are formed at a distance of 50–60 cm from each other. The central shoot is cut at a height of 45-50 cm above the last level.
For Turgenevka, a sparse-tiered crown is best suited
The first time a Turgenevka seedling is shortened already at planting. The next year, 4–5 lateral shoots are left, extending from the trunk at an angle of approximately 45º and located at approximately equal distance from each other. They are cut by about a third.
The next year, the second tier is laid over the first. On existing skeletal branches, leave those annual shoots (4-5 pieces) that are directed upwards. Poorly located shoots are removed to the point of growth.
In the third year, the formation of the first tier is completed. On each of last year's shoots, several bouquet branches are left - they will bear fruit.
In addition to the formative, there is also sanitary pruning. It is held twice a year - in spring and autumn. In the first case, remove all branches that have frozen over the winter and broken under the weight of snow. In the second, there are poorly located shoots that thicken the crown, as well as those that have dried up or have suffered from diseases and pests.
To trim cherries, use only a sharpened and disinfected instrument, all "wounds" are immediately treated
Once every 5-7 years, the tree is rejuvenated by cutting off all the old branches that no longer bear fruit. They can be replaced by so-called tops - thick shoots growing vertically upward, on which berries are never tied. The fact that the time has come is evidenced by a decrease in the growth rate of the tree - no more than 20 cm per season.
Video: tips for pruning cherries
Preparing for winter
Winter hardiness is one of the main advantages of Turgenevka, but it is better to hedge and protect the tree from possible prolonged frosts. Preparation begins with a thorough cleaning of the near-trunk circle from plant debris and the subsequent deep loosening of the soil. Then the corresponding area must be mulched with peat or humus (layer 8–10 cm thick).
The trunk to the first fork and the lower third of the skeletal branches are whitewashed with a slaked lime solution to protect it from rodents. For 10 liters of water, take 2 kg of lime, the same amount of powder clay, 50 ml of copper sulfate and a tube of stationery glue.
Whitewashing protects cherries from rodents - in winter they love to feast on its fragrant wood
Then the barrel is wrapped in 2-3 layers with any material that allows air to pass through. It can be burlap, spunbond, lutrasil and even women's tights. Young seedlings are simply covered with cardboard boxes of suitable size, stuffed with shavings, sawdust, small scraps of paper.
When enough snow falls, it is scooped up to the trunk, forming a snowdrift about 0.5 m high.In winter, it will have to be refilled several times as it settles. You also need to regularly break the crust of the hard infusion on the surface.
The cherry trunk is wrapped in some breathable material, then snow is shoveled for more warmth
Video: how to whitewash a cherry tree correctly
Often hybrid diseases and pests
Turgenevka, subject to proper care, rarely suffers from pathogenic fungi. But besides them, there are also many pests. Therefore, special attention must be paid to prevention. Simple measures will help to minimize the risk of infection:
- keeping the near-trunk circle clean - regular weeding, deep loosening and mulching of the soil, cleaning volunteers, dry foliage and other plant debris in the fall;
- regular inspection of the tree and the immediate removal of all branches, leaves, berries with suspicious symptoms (the resulting garbage is not stored somewhere on the site, but burned as quickly as possible);
- using only sharpened and disinfected tools for cutting, treating "wounds" with copper sulfate and covering with garden varnish;
- annual whitewashing of the trunk and lower branches, cleaning the tree from dead bark;
- planting between cherries (but not in the near-stem circle) onions, garlic, flowers and herbs, characterized by a sharp characteristic aroma.
Table: diseases and pests characteristic of Turgenevka cherries
|Disease or pest||Symptoms||Treatment|
|Coccomycosis||Rounded spots of brick color on the leaves. Gradually, the tissues in these places die off, a continuous layer of pale pink plaque appears on the seamy side. Sick leaves fall off in mid-July. The cherries themselves turn into skin-covered seeds.||
|Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot)||Light brown spots with a bright crimson border on the leaves. Gradually, the infected tissue turns black, holes are formed. The fruits have small pink "dents". The pulp in these places becomes denser and dries, the skin cracks.||
|Moniliosis||A grayish or whitish coating on the bark, then it cracks and looses. The berries turn brown, covered with small white or beige rounded growths. The tops of the shoots dry up.||
|Anthracnose||Dry seals on fruits, growing rapidly and covering the entire surface of the berry.||
|Rust||Small swellings of copper-red or brick color on the front side of the sheet, on the wrong side - a continuous layer of bright orange-yellow "pile".||
|Scab||Fast spreading spots on cherries, dark brown with a greenish tinge. Gradually, their surface is covered with cracks. You can't eat such berries.||
|Hommosis (gum flow)||Drops of viscous, sticky, turbid liquid oozing from cracks in the trunk. Its color can range from amber to pale yellow.||
|Cherry aphid||Small black insects stick around young leaves and tops of shoots. The leaf shrinks, “shrinks” along the central vein, then turns black and dries up.||
|Cherry fly||Females lay eggs in flower buds or buds. The hatched larvae feed on the pulp of berries, polluting it with the products of their vital activity. The peel becomes dull, "dents" and dirty brown spots appear on it.||
|Cherry Slime Sawfly||The larvae seem to scrape off the top layer of tissue from the leaves with a grater. They become covered with translucent spots, dry and fall off.||
|Cherry shoot moth||Caterpillars feed on leaves, gnawing the buds from the inside. They either do not bloom at all, or they turn out to be deformed. Then the pest moves to the buds and fruit ovaries.||
|Cherry weevil||The bug eats out flower buds and buds from the inside. Females lay eggs in fruit ovaries. The larvae gnaw the flesh from the inside, eat the bone. The fruits become smaller, covered with cork-like spots.||
|Winter moth||Caterpillars, yellow-green with black dots, are capable of depriving a tree of its foliage in a matter of days, leaving only veins. They also do not disdain unripe fruits, nibbling the flesh.||
|Hawthorn||Large yellow-black caterpillars covered with stiff hairs feed on leaf tissues, not forgetting about buds and buds.||
Photo gallery: diseases and pests that will have to be dealt with when growing Turgenevka cherries
Coccomycosis is one of the most common cherry diseases, Turgenevka, which is properly cared for, has good resistance to this fungus
Leaves affected by clasterosporium fall off much earlier
Berries infected with moniliosis cannot be eaten
Anthracnose reduces the yield of cherries by 30-50%
Rust is easy to recognize but difficult to get rid of
Copper-containing preparations are the most effective against scab - fungicides
Gum therapy is, rather, not a disease, but the consequences of an unsuccessful pruning or a concomitant symptom of other diseases
The cherry aphid lives in a stable symbiosis with ants, so you also have to fight with them.
The main harm to cherries is caused not by the cherry fly itself, but by its larvae
The leaves from which the cherry slimy sawfly gnaws at the tissue become thin, translucent
Leaves affected by cherry shoot moth either do not bloom at all, or are severely deformed
The cherry weevil is a cute bug, but it can rob you of a significant portion of your harvest.
The caterpillars of the winter moth can strip a tree of its foliage in a few days
The fight against hawthorn is a complex of measures; one should not forget about either caterpillars or adult butterflies
When to harvest and how to use the crop
Not the last place in the list of advantages of Turgenevka cherries is taken by early maturity and high yield. Only fully ripe berries are removed from the tree. They're not too sweet anyway. You shouldn't hesitate in harvesting either: overripe cherries quickly rot and fall from the tree.
High yield is one of the main advantages of Turgenevka
The best time to harvest cherries is not a too hot day. Be sure to wait for the dew to dry. Wet cherries do not last long.
The berries are removed from the tree together with the stalk only by hand. They are immediately sorted out, discarding all fruits, but of which the slightest traces of damage by pathogenic fungi and insects are noticeable. Cherries are laid out in small plastic or wooden boxes, wicker baskets, the bottom of which is lined with something soft. At a temperature of about 0 ° C and high air humidity (90–95%), Turgenevka will remain fresh for 17–20 days.
If there are so many berries that they do not fit in the refrigerator, you can place them in a basement or cellar, providing a temperature of 10-12 ° C. Cherries are poured into shallow flat containers (layer thickness - no more than 5 cm). The shelf life in this case is reduced to 10–12 days.
There are several ways to preserve cherries for a long time. The most popular is home canning. Turgenevka is very good in preserves, jams, compotes, as well as in liqueurs and liqueurs. You can also freeze and dry the berries. In this case, the benefits are practically not lost. Dried Turgenevka is much sweeter than fresh, and frozen keeps its shape and does not turn into an unappetizing porridge.
Fresh Turgenevka is rarely eaten, mainly this cherry is used for homemade preparations
It cannot be said that the Turgenevka cherry is an unsurpassed standard. Along with the undoubted advantages - good frost resistance, unpretentiousness and stable fruiting, the variety also has significant disadvantages. Mostly gardeners are not satisfied with the partial self-fertility and sour taste of the fruit. Nevertheless, Turgenevka, despite its "venerable" age, is still being grown - some for nostalgic reasons, wanting to feel the very "taste of childhood", some for the sake of preparations for the winter.
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