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Do-it-yourself Stove For A Summer Residence: Made Of Brick, Iron And Other Materials, Step-by-step Instructions For Making A Structure On Wood, Diagrams And Drawings
Do-it-yourself Stove For A Summer Residence: Made Of Brick, Iron And Other Materials, Step-by-step Instructions For Making A Structure On Wood, Diagrams And Drawings

Video: Do-it-yourself Stove For A Summer Residence: Made Of Brick, Iron And Other Materials, Step-by-step Instructions For Making A Structure On Wood, Diagrams And Drawings

Video: ⚫ DIY masonry of oven. How to Build a Masonry Furnace (Fireplace). ♦DIY CAM♦ 2022, December
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How to make a stove for a summer residence with your own hands: choosing the best option and the manufacturing process

Do-it-yourself oven
Do-it-yourself oven

Despite the development of technology, heating with a stove is the best option for most residents. Products operating on wood are mounted in dachas and in houses outside the city. You can build a structure without the help of specialists, armed with knowledge, tools and materials, you can build a stove with your own hands.

Content

  • 1 Advantages and disadvantages of a summer cottage
  • 2 Types
  • 3 Which one is better to choose?
  • 4 Design and features
  • 5 Calculation of basic parameters

    • 5.1 Determination of power and heat transfer
    • 5.2 Selection of fuel and material for manufacturing
    • 5.3 Determining the size of the furnace recess, the width and height of the element
  • 6 Tools and materials that will be needed
  • 7 Preparatory work and site selection
  • 8 Step-by-step instructions for making a stove for a summer residence with your own hands

    8.1 How to brick an iron stove?

  • 9 Features of the operation of country stoves and their cleaning

Advantages and disadvantages of a summer cottage

Heating stoves for summer cottages in most cases operate on the basis of convection heating of air. Today, there are 3 main types of stoves: cast iron, metal and brick. The suburban design has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The main advantages of a stove for a summer residence:

  1. Easy to install. The structure does not need to be connected to the water circuit. If you plan to heat a summer cottage with an area of ​​more than 200 m 2, then you will need to connect the stove to a chimney device. The building should not have internal walls that can slow down the air flow.
  2. Possibility of cooking. Additionally, you can install a cooking surface on which you can heat and cook food, as well as boil water.
  3. Fast warm-up. The small design is able to start immediately heating the air after loading fuel. This is achieved through the installation of a special device, which consists of convection tubes.
  4. The stove does not need to be heated in winter. It can only be used when heating is required.

The disadvantage is that such a stove is capable of heating only one room or a small room.

Views

Today, the following types of structures are most often installed:

  1. Cast iron stove. Used as an auxiliary heat source. It has a small-sized design that allows its installation in any part of the cottage. With the help of a cast-iron structure, the room heats up quite quickly, while the blower will retain heat for a long time.
  2. Metal construction. Made of heat-resistant steel. The room heats up quickly, but the metal of small thickness does not make it possible to keep warm for a long time.
  3. Brick oven. The option is the leader in reliability, but it is expensive. A spiral chimney of a special design is able to quickly heat up a room and save heat for a long time. Heating the room is slower than when using a metal product.
Heating and cooking stove
Heating and cooking stove

Oven with cooking surface

The choice is made based on the needs of the owner of the cottage.

Wood-burning stoves can be gas generating or pyrolysis. The most popular types of designs are Buleryan or Butakov's stove. Such designs are capable of providing a continuous supply of heat.

You can put a substantial supply of firewood in the stove and turn on the mode in which one part of the fuel will burn, and the other will wait until its turn comes. This is achieved by closing the draft tube flap.

Stove Butakov
Stove Butakov

The device of the Butakov furnace

The Butakov and Buleryan stoves are air-type heating structures. Quick warming up of the room is suitable for summer residents who occasionally visit their homes. Compared with typical wood-fired stoves, we can conclude that the gas generator device is more compact and economical. The disadvantages are the high demands on the chimney design and fuel quality.

Which one is better to choose?

It is important to establish a balance between the heat transfer of the structure and the heat loss of the room. This can only be done by building a quality oven. When choosing a design, it is important to remember that it must meet the following requirements:

  • the stove should warm up evenly over the entire base;
  • the device should provide a comfortable temperature in the room with low fuel consumption;
  • be simple and safe to use;
  • give off heat evenly to the room throughout the day;
  • ensure the maximum temperature on the basis of up to 92–94 ° С;
  • there should not be any gaps in the base through which smoke can penetrate into the room;
  • the larger the firebox, the longer the firewood will burn;
  • the stove should melt as quickly as possible;
  • the structure must be fireproof.

It is recommended to choose a stove for a summer residence based on the existing conditions:

  1. If you have a gasified area, you can buy or do it yourself a structure that uses gas as fuel.
  2. If you plan to make a brick stove, then it is recommended to give preference to Swedish or Dutch designs.
  3. The potbelly stove is made if it is not planned to pay special attention to the appearance of the product. It has excellent characteristics and surpasses its competitors in almost everything.
  4. It is better to take the firebox separately or arrange it so that the chimney fits into the room. You can choose a firebox that works with biofuel.
Potbelly stove for giving
Potbelly stove for giving

An example of a finished cast iron stove

In most cases, brick ovens are installed for summer cottages.

Design and features

The design of a brick cooking and heating stove will be considered, since it is often used in summer cottages. The design is not particularly complex, but it is possible to obtain increased productivity and efficiency.

The main parts of a stove of this type:

  1. Base. Any furnace drawing provides for a concrete floor or a separate foundation. The design should be designed for the construction of the stove body; it should not be common with the base of the walls and the chimney.
  2. The body of the device. Consists of a firebox and a chimney. If you plan to build an oven for cooking, then it is advisable to take care of the installation of the oven and hob. As an addition, a tank for heating the liquid can be made.
  3. Ash pan. With the help of this element, the fuel combustion products are collected and air is supplied. The compartment is located at the bottom of the grate. It must be equipped with a door. In most cases, the height of such a chamber is 3 bricks.
  4. Firebox. The main part of the stove, without which the structure cannot function. The element must hold a large amount of firewood. The dimensions of the furnace can be different, it all depends on the type of fuel used, performance and volume of the structure. If you plan to use firewood, then the height of this section should be 500–900 mm. The firebox is made of yellow bricks. The minimum wall thickness is 1.5 bricks.
  5. Chimney. An important detail of a brick stove. It has the shape of a coil. Gases will pass through this part and heat the bricks from which the chimney is made. If you plan to arrange the structure yourself, then the number of turns and bends should be minimal. If this is not taken into account, then there will be resistance to the movement of gases from the furnace. As a result, the heating efficiency of the room will be reduced.
Heating and cooking stove
Heating and cooking stove

Stove with oven and cooking surface

Stoves for summer cottages are capable of operating in two modes. If you need to quickly heat the room, then the ash pan will need to be pushed out a few cm, and the gate should be fully opened. To maintain the same temperature, use the continuous burning mode. To do this, you need to close the blower flaps and tubes. In this case, the air supply to the furnace will be limited, while the draft will decrease. The amount of wood that will receive the required amount of air will smolder.

The other part of the fuel will warm up and release flammable gases. After a certain time in the firebox, which has a separate air supply, they will burn, releasing heat. A stove with a long burning efficiency is much higher than that of an ordinary one. After filling the fuel, it will be possible to get heat for a long time.

Wood stove for summer cottages
Wood stove for summer cottages

Brick stove firebox door

Calculation of basic parameters

Without a competent calculation of the parameters, it will not be possible to build a reliable structure.

Determination of power and heat transfer

To determine heat losses in winter, you need to know the volume of the room, the dimensions and number of windows, doors, the parameters of the wall structures, the floor base and the attic floor.

Heat loss in the building
Heat loss in the building

Determination of heat loss at home

1 m 3 of the internal volume of a corner room loses 60 kcal / h at a design temperature of 25 ° C. To determine which design is suitable for a country house, you need to know the heat output of the stove. Each m2 of free base of the product gives off approximately 500 kcal / h. If the stove occupies 1 m 2 of the floor area, then it can heat 35 m 2 of the building's living area.

Below we will consider an example of calculating a stove for a four-room dacha 6x8 m. The ceiling height in the premises will be 2.7 m. All rooms have been insulated. The stove is planned to be located in the middle of the room. The first step is to determine the heat loss of the entire building. To do this, the volume of the house must be multiplied by 60 (the amount of heat loss per hour per 1 m 3). If you round up, you get 7800 kcal / hour. The resulting number is an indicator of the heat loss of the building. Accordingly, a stove with a heat output of at least 8000 kcal / hour will be needed.

The location of the stove for giving
The location of the stove for giving

Stove in the middle of the room

A slight excess of a certain heat output over the calculated heat loss is a margin that is important to take into account when making stoves. If you know the volume of the room and take into account that the stove, which occupies 1 m 2 of the floor base area, can heat 32–35 m 2 of the living room, then you can easily determine the design parameters. Regardless of which type of stove is chosen, you need to try to reduce the dimensions of the firebox and chimney pipes.

The power of the product is proportional to the volume of the furnace, it can be calculated using the following formula:

Furnace power = 0.5 x V, where V is the volume of the furnace. A standard stove with a firebox volume of 30 liters usually has a power of 16-18 kW.

The choice of fuel and material for manufacturing

Another important parameter is the material of manufacture. The service life of the structure will depend on the quality of the brick, cast iron or metal. Cast iron is a good material, but it is now rarely used. If you plan to use metal, you should remember that it must be of great thickness. Brick-laying stoves is a real art. It is worth noting that today it is quite difficult to find a good specialist. Such a structure can be made independently, but it is important to follow the scheme with accuracy.

It is worth remembering that brick ovens are difficult to heat, they heat up for a long time, and for their construction a separate foundation is needed. It is the stage of building the base that is the most difficult and costly.

The foundation for the country stove
The foundation for the country stove

Facing the base of the stove with brick

The next important parameter is the type of fuel. Firewood is not the only option, today gas or electric devices are also in demand. The main advantage is that the firing result will not depend on the quality of the fuel or the skills of the stoker. However, the installation of a gas stove can only be carried out by a qualified technician.

It is also important to decide on the type of construction. Among Russian stoves, the products of Kuznetsov and "Dutch" or "Swedes" are very popular. Kuznetsov's furnaces have a special design that allows warm and cold vapors to move so that the efficiency of the product reaches 85–90%. The advantages also include the absence of soot and minimal maintenance of the oven. Today there are more than 150 ready-made schemes for such a structure. One of them is shown in the figure:

Kuznetsov furnace
Kuznetsov furnace

Drawing of the Kuznetsov stove

"Shvedka" is an independent cooking and heating structure, and "Dutch" can be used exclusively as a supplement. The advantages of a Swedish oven:

  • the ability to cook food;
  • high-quality heating of the building;
  • built-in oven.

Drawing "Swedish" is shown in the figure:

Swedish oven
Swedish oven

Drawing of a Swedish stove, where 1 is a lifting channel, 2 is a pocket of warm steam, 3 is a horizontal channel, 4 is a lowering channel, 5 is a cover, 6 is an exhaust pipe

Determination of the size of the furnace recess, the width and height of the element

It is important to correctly size the combustion chamber. To do this, you need to measure the room in which the oven will be installed. The first step is to determine the size of the combustion hole. The ratio of the depression to the area of ​​the room is 1:50. As an example, we will consider a room with an area of ​​20 m 2. The calculation will be as follows: 20/50 = 0.4 m 2. This will be the size of the firebox opening. This data will need to be entered into the drawing.

Brick stove drawing
Brick stove drawing

An example of a drawing showing the firebox

Next, you will need to calculate the width and height, while it is worth noting that the height to width is 2: 3. In our example, the dimensions will be 51x77 cm. The data is checked as follows: 51 x 77 = 3927 m 2. Accordingly, the resulting value is consistent with the calculations.

The next step is to calculate the size of the portal. To do this, you need to determine its depth. This value affects traction. If you make a mistake when drawing up a drawing, this can lead to insufficient heating of the room or smoke.

The ratio of depth to height is 2: 3. The height is 51 cm, so the depth calculation will be: (51/3) x 2 = 34 cm.

If you increase the depth, then the heat can start flying out into the chimney pipe. If reduced, smoke can enter the room

If for some reason there is no desire to perform all the calculations yourself, then you can use the table. It will allow you to determine the main parameters so that you can draw up a drawing.

The table is shown in the figure below:

Size calculation table for summer cottage
Size calculation table for summer cottage

The main parameters of the stove

Particular attention should be paid to calculating the size of the chimney. The structure is calculated based on the area of ​​the portal part. The chimney to portal ratio is 1:15.

It is worth noting that if there is no experience in drawing up a drawing, then it is recommended that such work be entrusted to qualified specialists or use a ready-made drawing.

Tools and materials that will be needed

You will need to prepare the following elements:

  • brick;
  • a hammer;
  • mountain sand without impurities;
  • clay;
  • doors;
  • gate valves;
  • metal staples;
  • asbestos cord;
  • obusch;
  • Master OK;
  • mortar shovel;
  • lath made of wood.

The kiln brick has dimensions of 230x114x40 mm. It can be used to build a Dutch structure. The material is not suitable for a fireplace, as it absorbs only a small amount of heat and cools quickly. Accordingly, it can only be used for a summer cottage fireplace.

When laying the firebox, fireclay bricks should be used. Its advantage is high thermal conductivity combined with increased heat capacity. It is not recommended to build a stove entirely of fireclay bricks. From the outside, masonry made of this material should be lined with ceramic bricks.

Types of oven bricks
Types of oven bricks

Which brick to choose for the construction of the stove?

To check the quality of the material, you need to tap it with a hammer. If the sound is ringing or abrupt, then this means that the brick can be used. High-quality material splits into large pieces upon impact, and practically no dust is formed.

Internal elements are made of high heat-resistant clinker bricks. Silicate material is not allowed.

For a stove that has been in use for more than 10 years, you need mountain sand without impurities. If it is not possible to purchase it, you can use clay sand.

The fixation of the elements is carried out using a solution of sand and clay. There are quite a few recipes, it makes sense to consider simple and high-quality. Ceramic bricks require the use of refractory clay. For 100 pieces of bricks, you need 40 kg of clay.

Determination of the readiness of the mortar for masonry
Determination of the readiness of the mortar for masonry

Tips for determining the readiness of the oven mix

In the process of purchasing clay, it is important to check its smell: if there is one, then this indicates organic additives. Such clay cannot be used for laying the stove. At the next stage, you will need to determine the amount of sand in the mixture, since different types of clay have different fat content. For a sample, take 0.5–1 kg of clay powder, pour water in a bowl and leave the solution for 24 hours.

Then you need to add a small amount of water and knead until the consistency of plasticine. The batch must be divided into several parts and sand must be added to each. Samples are kneaded and dried for several hours.

One package of clay will make about 3-4 buckets of ready-made mixture.

Next, you will need to prepare the doors and latches that are attached to the body of the stove. Use metal staples and an asbestos cord to secure them.

To correctly perform the laying, you should prepare a wooden plank 50x50 mm. On its sides, you need to apply row numbers for different types of bricks. It is important to consider the thickness of the seam. You will need to prepare at least 4 such devices.

Example of using ordering
Example of using ordering

Fastening the rail to the masonry

The instructions for use will be as follows:

  1. The rows must be laid out in the formwork.
  2. The slats should be fixed in the corners. This can be done by using several staples with sharp ends.
  3. You need to attach a cord to the devices, along which the masonry will be carried out.
  4. The corners are verified with plumb lines.
  5. During the laying process, the upper bracket will need to be dismantled from the seam by swaying.
  6. The indentations from the staples can be repaired with masonry mortar.

Additional slats are installed at the corners.

Preparatory work and site selection

Construction of a structure begins with the selection of a suitable location. The stove must be installed for efficient heating. A wall must be located near the product through which the chimney will be led out into the street. It is important to consider the fact that the structure has a lot of weight. If the floor in the country house is made of wood, then you need to select a place where you can easily dismantle the floor base for pouring the concrete foundation.

Chimney installation on the street
Chimney installation on the street

Chimney installation through the wall of the house

If you install a stove in the middle of the room, then the heat transfer will be large, and the structure will be heated from all sides. In this case, heat is given off evenly. When installing the product against the wall, cold air flows from windows and doors will actively move around the room.

If the product is intended to warm up the air in a room, then it is best to install it in the wall of adjacent rooms. If you plan to cook food using the oven, then you can choose a place next to the kitchen.

Preparatory work includes the construction of the foundation. The base can be concrete or stone. The sequence of actions will be as follows:

  1. Before pouring the concrete structure, the formwork must be prepared.
  2. Wooden slats should be laid around the perimeter of the pit, and then fix them with strong reinforcing rods.
  3. After that, you need to pour the concrete mixture. The concrete is suitable for the M250 brand.
  4. When the solution is poured, the foundation must be allowed to dry out and harden. The term is approximately 1–2 weeks.

After the concrete has dried, the construction of the stove can begin.

Step-by-step instructions for making a stove for a summer residence with your own hands

Before laying the bricks, the building should be waterproofed. To do this, a layer of roofing material must be laid on the base.

The first row is laid out with fireclay bricks, since the material does not react to the temperature in this part of the structure. At the bottom, the stove has an ash compartment, so the brick is not afraid of burning and high temperatures in this place.

To assemble a high-quality structure, you need to prepare the order. The finished version is shown in the figure below:

Brick stove
Brick stove

Brick oven schematic

Step-by-step construction of this structure:

  1. The initial row is the most important. The bricks are stacked according to the level, and the corners are controlled by a square. The first row needs to set the correct location of all other rows. A blower is placed in the front of the structure, so a three-quarter brick is used for laying. For the convenience of ash removal, you will need to grind the brick towards the camera.
  2. The next row begins with the installation of the blower doors.
  3. The third row is laid out in accordance with the order. To make the right blower, you need to cut off the brick from both sides. On this row, the height of the blower doors must be reached.
  4. The next row begins with left-sided masonry. First of all, the cleaning door is installed. In the upper part, the door must be laid. In order for the ash pan to have the shape of a square, the bricks are chipped according to the size of the depression.
  5. The fifth row is laid out according to the order. At this stage, the hole must be narrowed.
  6. This row uses refractory bricks. Before the grate, the material must be chopped off. Between the masonry of this row and the grate, a distance of 1.2–1.4 cm should be made. Sand or ash will be placed in this hole.
  7. The next row overlaps the U-shaped hole. At this stage, you need to mount the firebox door.
  8. The next two rows are laid out identically. The brick must be chipped off from both sides so that the gases can smoothly flow from the firebox into the channel.
  9. The next step is to use refractory bricks. Layout is done vertically, while it is important to use the building level. A row is needed for mounting a cooking surface. The fire door must be laid in the upper part.
  10. This row uses ceramic bricks. You will need to make a flooring of the cooking surface and block the firebox. The brick must be chipped so that there is a distance of several cm between the parts. A large door for the chamber is being installed. The damper must be inserted into the installed part. Additionally, the fastening can be strengthened, if necessary.
  11. The left channels are connected to form a rectangular structure.
  12. The next row separates the channels.
  13. A damper is being installed, which will allow the cooking surface to work autonomously.
  14. The shutter is overlapped. Next, you need to close the doors of the cooking chamber. The ventilation door is being installed.
  15. Close the door. Above the cooking chamber, you will need to insert several rods of steel.
  16. The next two rows cover the cooking chamber.
  17. The bricks are mounted on the edge. The distance from the wall to the parts to be laid is 4 cm. The door is being installed for cleaning.
  18. The next row is laid out in the same way as the previous one.
  19. All doors are closed.
  20. Elongated channels must be covered with masonry "on the edge".
  21. Place the bricks at the same distance from the oven walls. Special attention is paid to the seams.
  22. The next row will need to block all channels, except for a square-shaped structure. Several bricks must be laid close to the wall, partially recessed and resting on parts that are installed on the edge.
  23. Remaining channels overlap. A metal valve must be inserted into the smoke passage.
  24. Several more rows are formed above the thermal compartments. This is necessary for the safe operation of the structure.

If you adhere to the scheme, then problems should not arise.

How to brick an iron stove?

The rows are staggered in half a brick. It is important to keep the same distance between the brickwork and the iron screen. The optimal clearance is 5 cm.

Brick lining of the furnace
Brick lining of the furnace

The process of bricking an iron furnace

It is recommended to soak bricks in liquid before laying. The seams are rubbed with a building mixture. It is imperative to make blow-out holes so that air can circulate between the masonry and the iron walls. To do this, in the places of the holes, the brick should be laid with the end part forward. Through each row, you need to lay a mesh of reinforcing rods.

The mixture dries for about 24 hours. Then you can start cleaning the stove from the mixture stains. An electric drill with a hard brush attachment will help to complete the process. To eliminate stains, the structure must be washed with a brush soaked in soapy water.

Features of the operation of country stoves and their cleaning

In the process of using stoves, the following factors should be considered:

  1. The room should be regularly ventilated.
  2. The structure must be located at a distance of at least 1 m from objects that can ignite.
  3. It is necessary to ensure that the firebox is covered with a grate.
  4. It is important to follow the lighting instructions.
  5. Burning rubber, plastic, flammable and corrosive substances is not allowed.
  6. Periodically you need to carry out a preventive examination.
  7. The use of a faulty heating structure is not allowed.

This type of oven requires regular cleaning. The following items are cleared:

  • glass doors;
  • chimney;
  • firebox;
  • the surface of the product body for heating.
Cleaning the country oven
Cleaning the country oven

Cleaning the stove from soot

Cleaning is done once a year. When the oven is completely cool, the ash should be removed from the ash compartment. The door glass is wiped from the inside. To do this, you need to use a special cleaning mixture. The use of products containing abrasive substances is not allowed. It is important to regularly wipe the surface of the structure with a dampened cloth.

It's not difficult to build a stove for a summer residence with your own hands. In order to avoid mistakes, you need to adhere to the scheme and use exclusively high-quality materials.

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