Table of contents:
- How to fold a Swedish oven with your own hands
- What is a Swedish oven and where is it used
- Swedish design, its distinctive features and principle of operation
- Calculation of the basic parameters of the Swedish oven
- Required materials and tools for building a furnace
- Preparatory work before assembling the oven
- Making a Swedish oven with your own hands: ordering scheme, construction technology
- Features of the operation of the Swedish oven
Video: Do-it-yourself Swedish Stove: Diagram, Ordering, Step-by-step Instructions With Photos And Videos, Etc
How to fold a Swedish oven with your own hands
Among the variety of furnace equipment, the Swedish model occupies a separate place. The design is a kind of symbiosis of Russian and Dutch stoves. The multi-pass principle in combination with bell-type furnace elements made it possible to create an efficient heating unit, in which small dimensions are successfully combined with high efficiency (up to 80%) and versatility of operation.
- 1 What is a Swedish oven and where is it used
2 The design of the Swede, its distinctive features and principle of operation
- 2.1 Video: the device of the Swedish oven - firebox, oven, smoke channels
- 2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of a Swedish woman
- 2.3 Types of Swedish ovens
3 Calculation of the basic parameters of the Swedish oven
- 3.1 Table: Specific calorific value of wood (kW / m3)
- 3.2 Table: selection of the chimney size according to the furnace power
- 4 Necessary materials and tools for building a furnace
5 Preparatory work before assembling the oven
5.1 Pouring the foundation
5.1.1 Video: foundation for a brick oven
6 Making a Swedish oven with your own hands: ordering scheme, construction technology
6.1 Video: a small Swedish woman for a country house
7 Features of the operation of the Swedish oven
7.1 Cleaning and repairing a Swede
What is a Swedish oven and where is it used
If you recall the life of an ordinary Swedish family in the 18th-19th centuries, it will immediately become clear what interests the stove served in every home. The hostess was engaged in cooking and household chores, the owner mostly fishing or hunting. The harsh northern climate, capricious changeable winds forced not only to heat the living space, but also often dry shoes and clothes. Food can wait a long time for the hunter to return from the field. In case of hypothermia, it is necessary to quickly warm up and restore health. All these needs are met by the design of the Swedish oven.
Today, the requirements for stoves are not at all different from medieval ones. People still need warmth, the ability to cook, a comfortable temperature while relaxing, and minimal effort to maintain it all.
Swedish design, its distinctive features and principle of operation
Most often, when mentioning a Swedish stove, associations arise with the word compactness. And not without reason.
The Swedish stove is a compact brick heating unit that can be used to raise the temperature in a room, heat food or dry clothes
The movement of gases from the firebox to the chimney takes place through the duct flue. Heat exchange is carried out in bell-type elements above the firebox and drying chamber.
One of the main features of the stove is the rapid heating of the oven, located on the same level with the firebox
Among the main visible design features are the following.
A must have a large oven. Moreover, the material from which it is made is not sheet or tin, but cast iron. This is a fundamental point that will tell a lot to a sophisticated stove-maker. The oven is intended not so much for baking bread as for quickly heating the kitchen in the very first minutes after kindling. Since the increased dimensions of the furnace are in fact a bell, chemical pyrolysis (afterburning) of the fuel occurs with a large release of thermal energy. This energy immediately enters the walls of a nearby oven. By opening the oven doors wide 3-4 minutes after the start of the firebox, users of the stove receive a powerful stream of hot air that enters from below (the cabinet is located below or at the level of the firebox). This will instantly warm up a small room, which, for example, a Russian stove cannot do.
The oven is located on the same level with the combustion chamber and is made of cast iron, so the heat from it spreads throughout the room 3-4 minutes after the start of the fire
The upper niche, which in the classic version can accommodate several sets of winter clothing and shoes. No matter how wet a person gets, the clothes will be completely dry in 4-5 hours.
The upper niche is large enough to dry several sets of clothes and shoes
The upper niche is heated both from the first heat and from the secondary one, therefore the temperature in it is stable even after the stopping of the furnace.
The lower niche is a recess directly above the hob. A very practical device that serves as a thermos. Scandinavian fishermen left food prepared in the evening in it. And she stayed there warm until the morning. Neither mice nor insects could enter the lower niche. From above, the recess was closed with a wooden lid.
After finishing cooking, the lower niche can be closed with a wooden screen.
The movement of gases in the Swedish stove is arranged in such a way that immediately after the end of the furnace it is necessary to tightly close the view. Otherwise, the stove will cool down very quickly, and even pump cold air from the outside. She inherited this property of the Swedish oven from a Dutch woman. The connection between the firebox and the chimney channels is carried out without the use of a highlighter, since this element is rather complicated and increases the cost of the stove.
The channels for the movement of flue gases in the Swedish oven are designed in such a way that a gate valve, closed with a delay, can cause rapid cooling
- The back of the Swedish stove is located in an adjoining living area - bedroom or living room. A bed or a fireplace can be adjacent to it. The resting shelf (to save space) has traditionally been made about 1.8 m long and 0.65-0.7 m wide. And since it was inconvenient to sleep in such a narrow space, a large bed was placed above it, which was thus heated from below by warm air. Under the bed, in drawers, clean linen and clothes were kept, which were always dry and warm.
Video: installation of a Swedish oven - firebox, oven, smoke channels
Advantages and disadvantages of a Swedish woman
So, after a short acquaintance, let's highlight the main advantages of the Swedish oven.
- Small dimensions - about 1 m 2 on the floor and up to 2 m in height (meaning the main furnace unit, without additional outbuildings).
- Multifunctionality. The stove heats, boils, dries, keeps warm.
- High heat transfer and efficiency, comparable to those of a Russian stove, but with a smaller size and weight.
- Additional add-on functions - sunbed, fireplace, etc.
- Uncomplicated masonry. The assembly can be performed without special qualifications and training. But this requires great care.
With the appropriate approach - an aesthetic appearance, interior decoration.
A well-built Swede can become the centerpiece and main decoration of the interior of the room.
- The ability to adjust the summer and winter modes. This is achieved by installing additional valves.
- The ability to quickly warm up (after 15–20 minutes) and "digest" any type of fuel - wood, coal, peat, pellets, etc.
- Efficiency - to maintain a stable temperature regime, a two-time firebox is enough for a day.
- The design of the heat exchanger, consisting of vertical channels, does not require frequent maintenance. If used correctly, soot plugs will not form in the passages.
The oven also has certain drawbacks, which are also worth noting.
- The need to use exclusively high quality materials. Laying is performed only on fireclay clay.
- The weak point is the door of the combustion chamber. This area is subject to high thermal loads, so a regular door made from stamped sheet will not last long. It is permissible to use only cast doors equipped with reliable fasteners - metal paws or "mustache".
- Comfortable use of a Swedish stove requires a certain space in which it is effective. This is about 35-40 m 2 of living space.
- The Swede is not suitable for heating in the country or in office premises in an irregular and seasonal mode. After idle time, it requires a long and accurate drying. The absorbed moisture can be removed only by unhurried, "accelerating" fires. But for places of permanent residence, the Swede is one of the best options, surpassing even the Russian stove in a number of indicators.
Types of Swedish ovens
The most popular among users are:
- a stove combined with a fireplace, in which the hob is facing the kitchen line, and the fireplace is facing the living room;
- a Swedish stove equipped with an oven, dryer and hobs, simultaneously heating the entire room;
- Swede with a sunbed, performing heating functions.
In addition to differences in functionality, Swedes are widely used by designers to create a certain color in the house. Various types of finishes are used - from the medieval style of natural stone to modern trends. The stoves are finished with titanium moldings, covered with artificial facing materials, turning them into unusual decorative elements.
The back wall of the Swedish woman, trimmed with natural stone, looks like a decorative partition
Calculation of the basic parameters of the Swedish oven
The process of designing a furnace is to determine the correct dimensions of all its structural elements.
- Only the use of reliable sources of design documentation (procedures) can ensure guaranteed reliability. Today, downloading the order with a detailed description of the masonry costs no more than 100 rubles. To order a project of non-standard dimensions costs about 1000 rubles. You should not save these insignificant amounts in order to subsequently lose much more. All dimensions must be strictly observed without exception.
- The subject of separate calculations may be the dimensions of the chimney, which are determined depending on the power and heat transfer of the furnace equipment.
To independently determine the cross-sectional area of the pipe, two indicators are needed - the size of the furnace and the specific heating value of the fuel used. The first one is calculated by multiplying the linear dimensions of the furnace (length, width and height). The second is in special tables. Heat transfer is calculated by the formula W = E beats ∙ V t ∙ 0.63 ∙ 0.4 ∙ 0.8, where W is the heat transfer in kW, V t is the volume of the furnace, and E beats is the specific calorific value, which we find from the tables. Numerical coefficients mean furnace efficiency (0.4), fuel combustion coefficient (0.8) and furnace load factor (0.63).
Table: Specific calorific value of firewood (kW / m 3)
|Wood fuel type||Humidity 12%||Humidity 25%||Humidity 50%|
For example, let's calculate the cross-section of the chimney for a furnace with dimensions of 0.4x0.3x0.4 m.
- The volume of such a combustion chamber will be V t = 0.4 ∙ 0.3 ∙ 0.4 = 0.048 m 3.
- If the stove is fired with birch wood with a moisture content of 25%, the power will be W = 2352 ∙ 0.048 ∙ 0.63 ∙ 0.4 ∙ 0.8 = 22.76 kW.
- Further, another table is used - the dependence of the cross section of the chimney on the power of the furnace. According to it, we determine that the maximum pipe size is needed - 270x270 mm.
Table: selection of the size of the chimney according to the power of the furnace
|power, kWt||Pipe dimensions, mm|
|up to 3.5||140x140|
Required materials and tools for building a furnace
Despite all the admonitions on the network that there is nothing easier than building a furnace, before you get down to business, you need to soberly assess and weigh your strengths. The Swedish stove is not a simple design, requiring scrupulousness and precision. You need to be well versed in the drawings and adequately read the orders. It is necessary to mix the mortar correctly, to own the primary skills of a bricklayer. Be able to maintain dimensions and lay even rows of bricks.
It is necessary to prepare all tools and materials for work. Of the tools you will need:
- bricklayer's trowel;
- hammer-pick, rubber mallet;
- construction plumb line, twine;
- the rule is rake-ordering;
- tape measure, square, hydraulic level, marker or pencil;
- shovels, buckets.
To build a stove, you will need a standard set of a bricklayer
The use of power tools - a hand drill with a mixing whisk and a grinder with a diamond disc for cutting bricks - will significantly speed up the work.
Diamond dusting on the disc makes it easy to cut the brick
For the preparation of the solution, it is recommended to use a metal sieve with a fine mesh for sifting sand and clay. It is very important to prepare the mortar with the correct materials. As already noted, ordinary clay does not withstand temperature loads, only fireclay clay can be used. White, blue or blue clay is considered ideal, which lies at a depth of 5–8 m. Those who decide to harvest this component on their own can be advised to look for it on steep river banks or in deep depressions. The most suitable will be a rock of medium fat content, without sandy inclusions.
The clay is kneaded in a building trough and left for several days to achieve the required consistency
The solution is soaked in a trough for several days until lumps disappear and excess water protrudes above the surface of the clay silt. After draining the excess water, the solution should have the consistency of thick sour cream. If such a solution is applied with a trowel to a dry vertical wall, it will not drain, but will hang and freeze in this position.
List of required materials for the construction of a Swedish stove:
- Red solid brick M-150.
- Fireclay brick brand ШБ-5 (GOST 530-212).
- Fireclay for masonry.
- Doors for combustion and ash chambers, dampers, latches.
- Oven with dimensions 45x36x30 cm.
- Cooking stove 41x71 cm.
- Cast iron grate.
- Metal corner with a shoulder size of at least 4 cm and a thickness of 5 mm. The metal strips are the same thickness. A metal sheet.
- Asbestos gasket in the form of a cord. Asbestos sheet for fire protection cuts.
Preparatory work before assembling the oven
An important part of the preparatory stage is the choice of the location of the stove in the overall layout of the house. Since the main task of the stove is heating, the center of the room is considered the best location. But usually, for practical reasons, the location is shifted closer to the front door. As a rule, the stove is folded at the same time as the walls and roof are erected. For this, the foundation is prepared in advance, because the oven weighs about 3 tons. Only a well-poured, well-established foundation will withstand such a load on 1 m 2.
The optimal location of the stove in a residential building is at the intersection of interior partitions near the entrance doors
If the stove is being built in a house that has already been built, it is necessary to take into account the outlet of the chimney above the roof. When installing a pipe, it is important not to violate the rigidity of the roof frame and not get on the rafter, as this will significantly complicate the task of building a chimney.
The summer-autumn period is considered a favorable time for carrying out preparatory work. It is best to give the foundation time to dry for at least 1 month, but ideally - six months, filling it in advance from the fall.
Holes in attic or interfloor ceilings are made just before laying the stove
The roof covering is dismantled last when the stacking of the chimney is completed.
Pouring the foundation
Let us dwell in more detail on the manufacture of the foundation for the Swedish stove, since this is a very important moment for its further operation.
The depth of the foundation is determined by region. The starting point is the depth of soil freezing in winter. If you make the foundation above this layer, displacements in the horizontal plane are possible. Therefore, on average, a depth of 0.8 to 1.0 m is chosen.
The sand pillow is filled up for two days to shrink and level
The linear dimensions are calculated according to the dimensions of the furnace itself. The foundation is laid 10-15 cm wider and longer than the dimensions of the furnace. This is a generally accepted standard for the construction of soil supports.
The linear dimensions of the foundation should exceed the dimensions of the furnace by 10-15 cm
- A sand cushion 15–20 cm high is poured between the soil and the concrete. With its help, the base of the future foundation is leveled and the pressure on the soil is evenly distributed. In addition, the sand perfectly permeates water through itself. In the future, it will remove moisture from the foundation when groundwater enters.
- After the sand, the use of a large fraction of crushed stone, broken brick, slate, tiles and other construction waste is allowed. They are tied with cement mortar. If possible, use a natural stone with high strength.
The reinforcement is placed closer to the upper layers. Its purpose is to strengthen the concrete mass and evenly distribute temperature changes over the entire area. Therefore, the metal mesh is laid in a horizontal plane 10-15 cm from the surface of the concrete screed.
The reinforcement mesh is fixed in the upper layers of concrete, not reaching the foundation surface of 10-15 cm
Immediately after pouring, the upper plane is leveled with a rule (or a wide trowel). And after setting and drying, several layers of roofing material are laid on it, which will play the role of waterproofing. Some masters prefer roofing material to roofing material. Others are synthetic materials with metal foil on one side. In any case, waterproofing is necessary, and you should not forget about it.
The waterproofing layer consists of several solid sheets of roofing material, laid on top of each other
- A hole in the floor is cut in such a way that it is convenient to make the oven masonry. And after the completion of the work - build up the flooring directly to the furnace body and install the skirting boards. To do this, add at least two additional logs on which the edges of the floors rest. Usually they are made from a construction beam (50x75 mm and above) and fastened to uncut floorboards with self-tapping screws. Lags are placed along the walls of the furnace after work on the foundation is completed.
Practice has shown that a feature of a Swedish stove, like a Dutch stove, is a powerful downward flow of heat energy. Therefore, before starting the laying, several layers of heat-insulating material are laid under the base of the furnace. Usually it is basalt cardboard - an inexpensive and durable heat insulator with a thickness of 5 mm or more. A more expensive, but also practiced method is laying the first row of the base of the furnace with fireclay bricks. The low thermal conductivity of the brick prevents heating of the foundation.
Basalt cardboard is an inexpensive and reliable thermal insulation material for ovens
Video: foundation for a brick oven
Making a Swedish oven with your own hands: ordering scheme, construction technology
Let us examine in more detail the laying of a heating and cooking model of a Swedish stove of small dimensions, suitable for a living room of 40 m 2.
Any furnace is placed using the order - a detailed layout of the bricks in each row
Row # 1 and Row # 2 are solid. Displacement and banding of bricks must be observed. Make sure the angles and horizontal plane are correct. These two rows serve as the basis for the entire mass of the oven, it is important to fold them without mistakes.
The first two rows are laid out with a solid plane and must be checked for horizontal and even corners
Rows 3 and 4 lay ash pan and soot cleaning holes. Blower doors and three cleaning doors are installed. Fastening is carried out using "whiskers" - twisted steel wire, which is walled up in brickwork. Another mounting option is the fixing feet. When installing metal fittings, it is necessary to leave a technological gap of 3-5 mm, designed to compensate for the thermal expansion of the metal. An asbestos cord seal is placed inside this gap.
In the third and fourth rows, a blower and cleaning holes are formed
A combustion chamber is formed in row No. 5. Laying is done with fireclay bricks from right to left. A grate is mounted on the bottom of the furnace. A thermal gap (4–5 mm) is left along the entire perimeter of the grate. For a stable position of the grate, the gaps are filled with sand.
The bottom of the furnace must be laid out with refractory bricks
The oven is being installed. Fastening is carried out in the same way - by weaving steel wire into the masonry solution.
The oven is fixed on a wire "mustache" that is walled up in the masonry
- In row No. 6, the laying of the chimney and combustion chamber begins.
In rows No. 7, 8, 9, a fire chamber is laid out of fireclay bricks. Between the red bricks of the body and the fireclay bricks, the furnace leaves a gap not filled with mortar. The goal is to prevent deformation of the housing due to thermal expansion.
The cavity of the combustion chamber is laid out with fireclay bricks
- At this stage, the combustion door is mounted. The frame is attached to the walls of the furnace either with wire or with a threaded bracket with "legs".
Row 8 overlaps the vertical channel from the lower chamber. The brick is installed “on the edge” between the firebox and the oven.
The entrance from the lower chamber is blocked off with a separate brick
- In order for the exhaust gases to go into the chimney channels, in the ninth row, the bricks are grinded at an angle. This can be done carefully using a grinder with a diamond-coated concrete disc.
On the tenth row, the firebox and oven are covered with a horizontal partition. A metal corner is mounted on the front of the slab.
The metal corner serves to reinforce the edge of the tile
Row number 11. A cooking metal plate is installed and the basis for further masonry is laid.
The eleventh row completes the device of the hob and oven
- Rows No. 12,13,14,15 and 16 form the chimney ducts. It is necessary to level and smooth the mortar inside the passages (mopping).
Rows 17 and 18 rest on metal supports made of strips and corners. The brewing compartment overlaps. To strengthen the masonry for metal, the bricks are additionally fastened with wire with corners.
In the 17th and 18th rows, corners and metal strips are laid to support the next row
The cooking chamber closes.
The chamber is closed completely except for the chimney channel
In rows 19 and 20, the laying of the drying chamber begins and doors are installed for cleaning the chimneys. Channel laying continues along the back wall.
On the twentieth row, the foundation of the drying chamber begins
Rows No. 21-28 form a cavity of the drying chamber.
Along rows No. 21-28, the cavity of the dryer is laid out
- In row # 27, a gate valve with a gap of 4–5 mm is installed. An asbestos cord is wound around the valve frame.
In row no. 29, the channels overlap and only the exit to the pipe remains. Immediately, the masonry expands to form a cornice. The drying chamber is covered with a brick layer. For this, metal corners and support strips are used.
The 29th row is stacked on metal corner supports for the dryer cover
A corner for the flue duct is cut into the metal sheet covering the dryer before laying.
A hole for the passage of smoke is cut with a grinder
Row 30 continues to expand by another 50 mm.
The overlap of the upper niche is made with a protrusion beyond the line of the furnace dimensions
Row 31 returns the dimensions to the original ones.
In the last row, the dimensions of the furnace return to their original
Next, a pipe is built up, which is assumed to be straight, without changing the size of the sectional area. In the attic, let's say the transition of a brick pipe to a metal one. In this case, the area of the inner section should not change. At the intersection of the chimney with the ceiling, according to the fire safety rules, it is necessary to make a fluff.
At the point of contact of the pipe with the overlap, it is imperative to lay out a fire-fighting fluff
According to the rules for installing a pipe on the roof, its head must be located at a certain height:
- if the chimney is brought out at a distance of up to 1.5 m from the ridge of a gable roof, the head must be 0.5 m higher than the ridge;
- if the distance from the chimney to the ridge is from 1.5 to 3 m, then the chimney must be raised to the level of the highest point of the roof;
- if the chimney is more than 3 m away from the line of intersection of the slopes, its upper edge should be on an imaginary line drawn from the ridge at an angle of 10 o from the horizontal plane;
- on a flat roof, the head must rise not less than 0.5 m above its surface;
- the total length of the smoke duct from the grate to the head in all cases should not be less than 5 m.
The height of the chimney is determined by its location relative to the ridge
After finishing the laying, the oven should dry out. It takes from a week to two to dry.
At this time, you cannot heat the stove, you can only open all doors and valves for accelerated ventilation
You can put a table lamp on or install a fan inside the firebox. This will speed up the drying process.
It will take up to two weeks to gradually commission the furnace. At this time, it is necessary to smoothly increase the amount of fuel combusted in the furnace. Firewood is laid in small portions (2-3 kg) several times a day. Ideally, keep the flame low and continuous.
Video: small Swedish woman for a country house
Features of the operation of the Swedish oven
The main condition for the long-term use of a Swedish stove is the observance of the correct furnace mode. She inherited from the Dutch woman a "low-speed" thrust, which involves burning fuel at a low speed.
The intense flame will quickly heat and overheat the thin-walled furnace body, which can damage the integrity of the masonry and seams
Therefore, it is not recommended to heat a Swede with thin brushwood, straw or other highly flammable material.
Cleaning and repairing Swedes
There are three types of routine maintenance for this type of oven.
- Daily cleansing. The ash chamber is cleared of ash and ash. The poker cleans the grate and unburned fuel in the combustion chamber.
- Annual cleaning of the furnace chimney ducts. It is carried out once a year before the start of the heating season, usually in the fall.
- Once every 3-4 years, a full inspection of the inner working surface of the ash pan, firebox, oven, etc. is carried out. If cracks, falling out bricks or mortar are found, the damaged elements are repaired or replaced.
Despite the gigantic offer of heating equipment on the market for gas and electrical appliances, brick ovens confidently occupy their niche. The popularity among users is growing steadily every year. The Swede is a prime example of the combination of Scandinavian design, practicality and accurate academic calculation. Self-assembly will save you financial costs and gain invaluable practical experience.
Popular by topic
Types of organic fertilizers, practical recommendations for the production and use of compost and other fertilizers
Tips for preparing hot drinks. necessary products, the sequence of preparation of mulled wine, chocolate, coffee and tea with the addition of spices
Practical recommendations for creating a decorative reservoir in the garden. Necessary materials and tools, stage-by-stage performance of work
How to use ash correctly as fertilizer for the garden and vegetable garden. Ash types, its effect on different types of soil
How to make a brick brazier yourself. A step-by-step description of the work, advice on choosing the type of barbecue and the necessary materials