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Wooden Doors: Varieties, Device, Components, Installation And Operation Features
Wooden Doors: Varieties, Device, Components, Installation And Operation Features

Video: Wooden Doors: Varieties, Device, Components, Installation And Operation Features

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Wooden doors: varieties, installation and operation

wooden door
wooden door

Wood in its various forms is more often used as a material for the manufacture of doors. For many centuries, wood remained the only material suitable for these purposes, not counting the fabric curtain partitions. The first doors in history were made of wood. Modern models are full of a variety of shapes, textures and styles. The classic ones are still popular and in demand.

Content

  • 1 Arrangement of wooden doors
  • 2 Types of wooden doors

    • 2.1 Solid wood doors

      2.1.1 Photo gallery: options for solid wood doors

    • 2.2 Carved wood doors

      2.2.1 Photo gallery: examples of carving wooden doors

    • 2.3 Double doors
    • 2.4 Blind doors
    • 2.5 Lattice doors
    • 2.6 Doors with glass
    • 2.7 Interior wooden doors
    • 2.8 External wooden doors
    • 2.9 Veneered doors
    • 2.10 Sliding and sliding doors
    • 2.11 Arched doors

      2.11.1 Photo gallery: ideas for the execution of arched doors

  • 3 Manufacturing of wooden doors
  • 4 Dimensions of wooden doors

    4.1 Table: the ratio of the sizes of door leaves and openings

  • 5 Features of the installation and operation of wooden doors

    5.1 Video: installing an interior wooden door

  • 6 Repair and restoration of wooden doors
  • 7 Care of wooden doors
  • 8 Accessories for doors

Arrangement of wooden doors

The structure of wooden doors differs depending on the used opening system. The design of popular swing doors is based on hinges, door leaf, frame and trim. If necessary, install additional elements, thresholds or decorative portals.

Wooden door device
Wooden door device

The door frame is installed 1–3 cm from the opening: the technological gaps are sealed with polyurethane foam to increase heat and sound insulation properties

The design of sliding doors consists only of the door leaf and its movement system, which is installed hidden in the opening or open. It includes metal guides and rollers attached to the door leaves.

Types of wooden doors

The variety of models and door openers is impressive. Manufacturers replenish their collections and follow current trends in design, working with individual orders as well. Let's consider the main types of wooden doors and their features.

Solid wood doors

Doors made of solid natural wood are considered classics: solid, reliable and beautiful. However, it is difficult to purchase a door that is made entirely of solid wood, as stores usually offer combined models consisting of wood and chipboard sheets.

Interior wooden doors
Interior wooden doors

For the most part, solid wood doors have a classic design.

A door made of solid natural wood is either ordered at the factory, or bought through the Internet site. But it will cost several times more than the presented store models. The solid wood construction turns out to be quite heavy, so such a door is used as an entrance door, well, or in a large hall of a country house.

Solid wood door in section
Solid wood door in section

Usually doors made of solid wood are paneled to emphasize the beauty of the model and additionally decorate it with carvings.

The cost of solid wood doors directly depends on the species and type of wood used. Softwood products (pine, larch) are cheaper than hardwood products (oak, teak, elm, walnut, ash).

Solid pine doors
Solid pine doors

Doors made from soft woods differ in color and asymmetry of wood veins

Paints and varnishes give the doors a unique look. Models are made in classic style, modern or medieval.

Antique front door
Antique front door

Solid wood front door in the style of the Middle Ages will decorate the mansion and attract the eyes of passers-by

The advantage of solid wood doors is their durability and the possibility of restoration. It is easy to fix minor defects at home on your own. This is important, because the cost of a new door is many times higher than the cost of restoration work.

Painting a door from a spray gun
Painting a door from a spray gun

The restoration of a solid wood door consists in the elimination of the scratches that have appeared (using sandpaper cleaning) and updating the color scheme of the canvas

When buying a door of this type, pay attention to the quality of the decorative coating and adhesive joints. All elements should look like a monolithic structure.

Photo gallery: options for solid wood doors

Living room in the style of minimalism
Living room in the style of minimalism

Minimalistic design highlights the solid wood door with glass inserts

Interior in shades of green
Interior in shades of green

The light green door fits perfectly into the interior and does not focus on itself.

Door in a log house
Door in a log house

A door in the color of the walls with glass inserts - a light and inconspicuous element of the interior

Double-leaf front door
Double-leaf front door

A classic style door in a noble gray color with three-dimensional elements that draws attention and sets the style for the entire room

Door with decorative portal
Door with decorative portal

The portal, decorated with antique columns, will visually add the massiveness of the double-leaf door

Arched solid wood door
Arched solid wood door

A double-leaf arch-like door with colored glass inserts built into the opening expands the space by adding lighting

Carved wood doors

Wood carving is a way of artistic processing that gives a zest to the appearance of the product.

Threaded swing door
Threaded swing door

The interior door can be decorated with carvings in the form of a large ornament, emphasizing the peculiar style of the room

Decorating affects the cost of the product, especially if the work is manual. There are no fundamental differences in such doors, but they accumulate dust, which complicates cleaning: the ornament made of small elements must be promptly cleaned with a vacuum cleaner with a soft brush.

Photo gallery: examples of carving wooden doors

Carved solid oak door
Carved solid oak door

Carved doors with oriental ornaments will look good in ethnic interiors

Carved mahogany door
Carved mahogany door

Doors with embossed carvings and volumetric elements are appropriate in classic interiors of large rooms

Door with carved panels
Door with carved panels

The combination of flat and raised carving creates a three-dimensional image

Lion head front door
Lion head front door

With the help of sculptural technique, unique and inimitable products are created

Double doors

When the opening exceeds 1 m, it is better to install a double-leaf door so as not to overload the hinges. Such doors create a sense of splendor, and they are framed with figured portals with a visor, adding glass inserts.

Double-leaf door with glass
Double-leaf door with glass

The front door made of solid wood and glass lets in light and visually makes the structure weightless and mysterious

Double-leaf doors are manufactured in two versions: with symmetrical leaf sizes and asymmetric ones. One sash is set in a standard size, sufficient for the passage of people, the second is less than half; and fix it in the closed position, opening if necessary. This double-leaf door functions as a single-leaf swing door.

Double-leaf entrance door
Double-leaf entrance door

Doors with different leaves are usually installed in openings up to 1.8 m - they wear out less during operation

To increase the functionality of a double-leaf door, you can use a pendulum opening system, when the leaves are opened in either direction in the direction of travel.

Blind doors

Blind-type door leaves are installed in auxiliary and private rooms: kitchens, bathrooms, bedrooms, offices, saunas and dressing rooms. And also - as entrance and vestibule.

Blind panel door
Blind panel door

Hinged panel door made of solid wood is a classic and common option for any room: it looks beautiful and reliable

The advantages of blind doors are obvious - they prevent penetration:

  • cold (in conjunction with the sealing contour);
  • noise;
  • Sveta;
  • prying eyes.

The appearance of such doors cannot be called meager - they are decorated with carvings, wood burning, moldings, portals.

Panel (flat) doors will perfectly fit into the design of a house, decorated in the style of a hut, or into a discreet modern interior, and paneled doors will fit into a classic one.

Two paneled and two panel doors
Two paneled and two panel doors

Deaf doors - paneled and panel - will decorate any interior, if you choose the right external design

Lattice doors

Lattice wooden doors are louvered doors. They are not common in our country with small-sized apartments, since they do not give the feeling of a closed space, do not protect against noise and odors from an adjacent room, and are inconvenient to clean. But they began to be used in auxiliary premises, in country houses and in summer cottages.

Folding lattice door
Folding lattice door

The shutter door to the dressing room consists of four leaves, which are equipped with a folding mechanism

The doors are very lightweight due to their lattice construction. A jalousie door can be assembled with your own hands from blanks of door leaves on the market: it remains to cover them with decorative material, attach the fittings and install in the opening.

Different types of louvered doors
Different types of louvered doors

Louvered doors are made in different designs: single-leaf, double-leaf, folding, sliding, with horizontal and vertical strips-lamellas, which gives a wide choice of their use

When choosing a louver door, pay attention to the smoothness of the wood, to the rigid fixation of the lamellas in the frame and their parallelism relative to each other.

Glass doors

Glazed doors are installed in rooms that do not require a private setting. Wooden doors with glass inserts will decorate the living room, dining room, exit to the veranda or balcony, letting in additional light into the unlit part of the room (corridor, hall).

Interior glass sliding doors
Interior glass sliding doors

Transparent glass inserts let in natural light and visually unite adjacent rooms, while frosted glass creates a tangible border

The doors are glazed not only for additional lighting, but also for the sake of creating a cozy and airy atmosphere, because glass facilitates the construction in the literal and figurative sense. If they want to limit the penetration of light, then they put colored glass, frosted glass or a mirror.

Interior wooden doors

Depending on the operating conditions, different requirements are imposed on interior doors, the main ones are:

  • thermal insulation properties;
  • noise insulation properties;
  • light transmission;
  • moisture resistance;
  • maintainability.

Interior doors made of wood are classified according to:

  • material for making the canvas;
  • form;
  • internal device;
  • type of opening system;
  • the number of flaps;
  • type of decorative coating.
Glass and fixed doors indoors
Glass and fixed doors indoors

You can choose doors to different rooms of the apartment that are in harmony in color and texture, but differ in style

The appearance of interior doors is important, they are selected based on the given design solution of the room. Sometimes the door is the main bright accent.

External wooden doors

External doors are classified in the same way as interior doors, but burglary resistance is added to the listed properties. The strength and reliability of the door is influenced by the thickness of the leaf and the type of wood. External doors are often made of oak. The thickness of the outer door is 2-3 times the thickness of the interior door.

External entrance door
External entrance door

For entrance doors, hardwoods are used that are resistant to atmospheric precipitation and temperature drops

Combined doors are now widespread, the design of which is reinforced with stiffening ribs made of steel profiles and corners. Such doors are as burglary as metal ones, but they also boast a pleasant natural wood texture. You should not save on hardware for an external door: it must be of high quality and beautiful.

Veneered doors

Doors covered with veneer are an excellent alternative to doors made of solid wood: appearance with a natural wood texture, light weight and low cost. Veneer is made from soft and hard wood, so it differs in quality, color and texture. The basis of the leaf of such a door is a frame made of beams, sheets of wood-shaving materials (chipboard, MDF), stiffening ribs and filler. Outside, the canvas, glazing beads and platbands are pasted over with natural or artificial veneer.

Veneered door leaf design
Veneered door leaf design

The veneered door is used only as an interior door, and it is easy to install it alone

Paints, varnishes, oils and waxes are used on top of the veneer. Veneered doors can be renovated and repaired on their own: carefully sand the scratches and touch up the surface.

Blind interior door
Blind interior door

Veneer of a valuable wood species with a unique natural pattern, glued with horizontal stripes, decorates the interior and attracts attention

Before buying, ask: what kind of wood veneer was used, because each material behaves differently depending on the operating conditions.

Sliding and sliding doors

The problem of overlapping wide openings is solved by installing sliding or sliding doors. In such systems, door leaves move along guides on rollers.

Sliding door
Sliding door

Sliding doors allow, if necessary, to combine adjacent rooms without taking up additional space (for example, to build a long table for two rooms for a large number of guests)

The design of moving doors saves door space by not requiring space for opening leaves. The canvas is placed in any size and is made of different materials. The number of moving canvases depends on the width of the opening. Such models are made to order, because wide openings are non-standard.

Blind sliding door
Blind sliding door

An open movement mechanism, consisting of a metal rail and rollers, is also used for one door if the opening is narrow

A significant drawback of a sliding door system is poor sound insulation due to gaps between the wall and the canvas.

Arched doors

Arched doors are no different from rectangular ones: their feature is a non-standard shape. Such doors are rarely installed due to the predominance of rectangular openings in the layouts of apartments and houses, and reworking an opening into an arched one carries certain difficulties and costs.

But even in an arched opening, it is difficult to find the right door due to the different radii of curvature in specific cases. You have to make an individual order with the required dimensions, which also leads to higher prices.

Arched door from solid wood with stained glass
Arched door from solid wood with stained glass

Stained glass in door decoration is rarely used due to the high cost, but if the choice fell on just such a door, then it will become a real interior decoration

Despite the listed disadvantages, arched doors have a number of advantages: they give the interior refinement, sophistication, originality, splendor and return to the era of classicism.

Photo gallery: ideas for the execution of arched doors

Front door with glass doors
Front door with glass doors

The facade is decorated with an arched door, the shape of which echoes the shape of the windows

Blind arched door made of solid wood
Blind arched door made of solid wood

The arched door shape and forged elements will be appropriate in creating a medieval style.

Arched interior door
Arched interior door

Glass inserts and a figured portal repeat the curved shapes of the door and visually make it almost weightless

Manufacturing of wooden doors

The process of making a wooden door depends on its type. Considering the use of mechanized methods of wood processing, there are no difficulties.

The following machines are used in the production of doors:

  • sawing;
  • format-cut;
  • milling;
  • drilling;
  • gluing machines.

Although handicraft in the production of doors is not uncommon: solid carved doors, canvases with figured portals or geometric glass inserts have truly unique decorative elements.

The method of assembling a paneled door is as follows: grooves are cut in the frame of vertical and horizontal bars and a panel is inserted into it. The crossbars from the bars at the ends are cut out in the form of thorns and mounted in the grooves of the posts.

Panel door manufacturing process
Panel door manufacturing process

All elements of the paneled door are made with exact dimensions so that they fit tightly into the structure after assembly

The material for solid wood doors is dry wood with a moisture content of no more than 20%, otherwise the door leaf will dry out and deform during a year of operation. The adhesive is used for furniture, suitable for indoor use.

Dimensions of wooden doors

In buildings, the dimensions of openings are standard, so the dimensions of the doors are adapted for them. When the opening is non-standard, an individual order saves the situation.

Table: the ratio of the sizes of door leaves and openings

Blade size (mm) Opening size (mm)
Door type Width Height Width Height
Single leaf 550 2000 2100 2200 630-650 2060-2090 2160-2190 2260-2290
600 680-700
700 780-800
800 880-900
900 980-1000
Bivalve 1200 1280-1300
1400 1480-1500
1500 1580-1600

In stores, doors with running dimensions are always available, so it is important to measure the opening before buying a door structure.

Horizontal section of a wooden door
Horizontal section of a wooden door

If the box is mounted in the opening not according to the marking rules, then the door will be difficult to close

Features of installation and operation of wooden doors

Before buying a door, the opening is measured in three places and the smallest value is determined - this is the opening width. The door is installed accurately and accurately: the tree does not tolerate distortions.

Measuring the opening width
Measuring the opening width

The vertical edges of the box are installed strictly according to the building level, so they will have to be aligned according to a smaller indicator of the width of the opening

The process of installing a wooden door can be divided into several main stages:

  1. Installation of the door frame in the opening - it is fixed with self-tapping screws through metal plates, the seams between the opening and the frame are sealed with polyurethane foam. Check the verticality and horizontalness of all elements.
  2. Hanging the door leaf - hang it on the hinges when the foam is completely seized and the box is firmly fixed in the opening (at least 8 hours after installation).
  3. Installation of platbands - if the platbands are not self-locking, then they are attached to the box with nails without caps on both sides of the opening. In order not to damage the coating, the platbands protect: they cover the nail with a small piece of linoleum and hammer it in until it stops.

    Installation of platbands
    Installation of platbands

    Platbands can be fixed flush with the opening or provide a small indent

Video: installing an interior wooden door

Repair and restoration of wooden doors

Solid wood doors are easier to restore. Repair work of such doors is carried out sequentially:

  1. Removing the old coating. It is removed by hand with sandpaper or a grinder. If the coating does not lend itself to mechanical stress, then it is dissolved or removed by heating. The required temperature in domestic conditions is created by a powerful building hair dryer.

    Removing the old coating with a hairdryer
    Removing the old coating with a hairdryer

    The varnish begins to melt at about 400 ° C

  2. Elimination of defects. After removing the coating, dents and cracks are clearly visible. Various materials are used to seal them up: special putties for wood, epoxy resins, wax or glue. Depending on the depth and size of the defect, on the type of wood and price, a suitable material is selected.
  3. Finishing sanding. After the grout has completely dried, the door surface is sanded again. If the defects were minor, then the grinding is carried out locally.

    Grinding the door
    Grinding the door

    For fast and high-quality ciphering, it is better to use eccentric grinders

  4. Covering with new decorative material. If the door requires painting, then it is previously covered with a primer on wood. It is not necessary to prime the surface before processing the door with varnish, oil or wax. The formulations are applied with brushes or sponges.

The restoration of veneered doors is also possible, but difficulties can arise if the veneer is damaged. Finding a veneer of the same wood species and texture is not easy. Minor defects are rubbed with furniture wax of a suitable color.

One of the most common occurrences is damage to glass inserts. The old glass is replaced with a new one.

Caring for wooden doors

In order for wooden doors to serve for a long time, it is important to control the indoor microclimate. The air temperature is maintained within 25 ° С, and the humidity - within 70%.

Do not use ordinary detergents to care for wood products: choose special wood care products based on the material of the door surface. For cleaning, use a soft sponge or microfiber cloth, slightly moistening them with water. Dust in hard-to-reach places of carved or louvered doors is handled by a vacuum cleaner with a brush attachment. Glass and fittings are wiped with the usual specialized means.

Accessories for doors

The accessories include hinges, handles, guides, rollers, door closers and locking devices.

Door hinges have a different configuration and device: they are open, hidden, overhead, screw-in. Door closers are often used in exterior door systems. Each type of hinge has its own installation features: overheads are screwed with self-tapping screws to the canvas and the box to the desired height, and the hidden ones are cut into the box itself tightly, for which an additional tool is required.

Interior door with hidden hinges
Interior door with hidden hinges

Hidden hinges are completely hidden from view and do not distract attention from the design of the door itself

Handles and locks are also mounted in different ways: there are mortise fittings and a consignment note. Flush fittings look neat, but it is easier to install the invoice.

Careful handling of components extends the service life. From time to time, the hinges are treated with lubricants, and the loose bolts are tightened in time.

Wooden doors are installed in every house, apartment and public institution. They have retained their leading positions to this day, despite the development of technology and the entry into the market of doors from other materials. A wooden door is not only functional - it can decorate any interior and become an object of close attention.

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