Table of contents:
- Cat love from A to Z: rules for mating pets
- The onset of puberty in cats and cats
- General rules for first mating
- Organization of mating of domestic cats
- How to tell if a cat is pregnant
- Why the pregnancy did not come
- Pregnancy after childbirth
- Sex hunting in neutered cats and neutered cats
- Reviews of cat owners about mating
Cat love from A to Z: rules for mating pets
Each kitten owner sooner or later faces the puberty of his pet and asks questions about what to do next with the matured animal. Pedigree cats are bred not only for pleasure, but also with the aim of consolidating the characteristics of the breed, making a contribution to the development of the club and, of course, selling kittens. The knitting process has a lot of features, and you should know about all the nuances in advance so as not to run into unpleasant problems.
- 1 The onset of puberty in cats and cats
- 2 General rules for first mating
3 Organization of mating of domestic cats
- 3.1 Conditions of keeping before mating
- 3.2 Preparation
3.3 How to find a partner
3.3.1 Contractual relationship in case of mating
- 3.4 Sexual behavior
- 3.5 Possible knitting difficulties
- 3.6 Video: rules for mating cats and cats
- 4 How to tell if a cat is pregnant
- 5 Why pregnancy did not come
- 6 Pregnancy after childbirth
- 7 Sex hunting in neutered and neutered cats
- 8 Reviews of cat owners about mating
The onset of puberty in cats and cats
Sexual maturity refers to the onset of the physiological ability to produce offspring. The flowering of reproductive function has its own characteristics depending on the gender of the domestic feline:
In females, puberty is associated with the onset of the first estrus, which usually occurs at 7-9 months of age. The duration of the period of sexual heat is 7–12 days. The frequency of the onset of estrus depends on the time of year, breed, physiological characteristics of the animal; breaks can be as long as several weeks or several months. The onset of heat can be determined by a number of specific symptoms:
change in behavior - the cat becomes affectionate, intensively rubs against objects and legs, rolls on the floor, often meows, screams, lifts the back of the body and puts its tail aside;
During estrus, the cat begins to take a position for fertilization - raises the back of the body and sets the tail
- swelling of the genital mucosa - externally, you can see the swelling of the vulva;
- In males, the age of onset of sexual activity is 6–8 months, after which they are able to mate at any time. In cats, the moment of maturation is characterized by signs of sexual heat: the pet begins to meow, attracting females, it can become more aggressive, marks the territory with urine, which acquires an unpleasant, pungent smell.
The first heat is not a signal that the animal can already be bred. At a young age, despite puberty, the cat's body as a whole is not yet capable of bearing such a great load. Early mating is fraught with consequences for reproductive health and can even pose a threat to the life of the pet, so it is not recommended to start mating cats before the age of one year.
There are factors that can change the timing of puberty and move it away from the norm in one direction or another:
- heredity - the features of the development of the reproductive system will largely be determined by what they were in the parents of the animal;
- season - in cats that reach the age of six months in the spring-summer period, puberty occurs earlier;
- physique - in females with a thin, graceful body, heat usually begins earlier than in large and massive breeds;
- nutrition - comfortable living conditions and good nutrition directly affect the early onset of puberty, but overfeeding and excess weight gain delay it;
- society - if a pet lives with other adult cats, then it will mature earlier than the one that will be the only pet in the house.
General rules for first mating
The basic rule of first mating is to wait until the animal is fully ripe. To obtain high-quality offspring, both the cat and the cat must be at least 1–1.5 years old. Before the first meeting with a gentleman, a cat should go through 2-3 heat - during this time her body will be fully formed. When planning breeding, animal owners need to take care of:
- the presence of all mandatory vaccinations - unvaccinated animals are not allowed for breeding due to the high risks to offspring;
- full health of pets - even if the date has already been set and agreed upon, and signs of malaise are noticed behind the cat or cat, it is better to postpone mating until the onset of a state of absolute health;
- selection of an "experienced" partner - it is better not to bring animals together, if for both this mating is the first, everything will be easier and less traumatic for the psyche of the pet, if his partner is not the first time faced with a similar task.
Organization of mating of domestic cats
The owner of the animal needs to carry out extensive work to prepare and provide conditions for successful mating and further equally successful pregnancy.
Conditions of keeping before mating
One of the main conditions for successful breeding is excellent pet health. The owners must take care of him constantly: visit the veterinarian on time, undergo preventive procedures in the form of vaccinations, treatments for parasites. Proper nutrition is of particular importance. So, a skinny or, conversely, a full animal cannot produce offspring without consequences for its own health or the health of kittens. Therefore, it is important to follow the principles of good nutrition and use either a variety of natural foods or quality feed. For 1-2 months before the planned mating, you should not make drastic changes to the diet, but it is recommended to add multivitamins.
The need for an additional source of vitamins should be discussed with your veterinarian
Having made the decision to get offspring from your pet and after waiting for the right age, you must immediately start looking for a partner. It is important to take care of this ahead of time, as this may take time and the exact date of the next estrus in the cat is unknown. Owners of both animals must carry out a number of preparatory measures:
- make sure that all the necessary vaccinations are available, in the absence of any of them - vaccinate (but here it should be borne in mind that you cannot knit an animal if less than two weeks have passed since the vaccination);
- in two weeks, carry out preventive treatment for worms in any convenient way;
before mating, it is better to trim the claws of the pets - this will reduce the risk of injury during mating.
To minimize the risk of injury when mating, it is better for a cat and a cat to trim their nails
You should not bathe the cat before the planned mating - the shampoo will overpower the natural smell, and it is he who is so attractive to cats and is necessary for successful intercourse. The cat is brought to the cat's territory for several days, so comfortable conditions must be created for it. The animal will find itself in a new environment, and it is important that it has the opportunity to retire somewhere for the time of adaptation, to gradually get to know the cat. The owner of the gentleman needs to provide a separate enclosure for the cat, a cage, the ability to leave the room if necessary.
When collecting a cat on a romantic weekend, you need to take everything you need with you, based on 2-3 days of living in another house:
- bowls for food and water;
carrying - the cat will be able to feel more comfortable having its own corner.
Having brought the female to mating, it is better to leave her with the carrier - this way she can more easily endure the stress of a change of environment
How to find a partner
When mating thoroughbred animals, not only animal health is of great importance, but also ensuring that future offspring comply with breed standards. The owner of the cat is engaged in the selection of a male for mating, therefore, all responsibility for the result lies with him (the only exceptions are those cases when problems are caused by diseases or abnormalities in the gentleman - then the owner of the male is responsible). The choice should be based on studying the genetic characteristics of the breed and following a number of rules:
Both pets must be of the same breed or those breeds that are allowed to cross. For example, it is forbidden to bring Scottish Folds together, since the gene responsible for drooping ears, in this case, will cause serious diseases of the musculoskeletal system. To preserve the health of the offspring of Scottish Folds, they are reduced only to Scottish Straight (Scottish Straight) or Highland Straight.
To obtain healthy offspring, Scottish Folds are bred only with straight breeds - this is extremely important to take into account when choosing a mating partner, while kittens with both straight and hanging ears will be in the litter
- It is important to know which coat colors are recognized within a particular breed and which are considered marriage. But here the opinions of different rating systems may differ, so it is worth considering only the one in which the pet is planned to be displayed. For example, according to the system of the World Cat Federation (WCF), an Abyssinian cat may be chocolate in color, but according to others, this is an unacceptable marriage. To fix a bright pattern or a unique color of a partner for a cat, it is worth choosing the same type of color, or even better - with the same pattern.
- Consideration should be given to assessments and comments from experts. So, if a cat has too large eyes, then you need to choose a cat for her, whose eyes will be close to the standard - this will compensate for the deficiency.
- It is necessary to study the pedigree of a potential chosen one in order to exclude family ties between animals. It is worth clarifying that the presence of common distant relatives is not a reason for refusing to mate, but closely related crossing (inbreeding) between siblings, parent children is prohibited, since in this case there is a high risk of serious genetic abnormalities in offspring.
You can search for a pair both independently and enlist the help of the club the cat belongs to.
Contractual relationship when mating
When breeding purebred cats, the issue of documents is most acute, because this is what guarantees the pedigree of kittens and will give the opportunity to participate with them in exhibitions and sell. For mating, pedigrees of both partners are required; in some systems, a permit for mating from the club and a mandatory visit to the exhibition with a score of at least "good" are required. To eliminate controversial situations between pet owners, a mating agreement is concluded, which specifies:
- length of stay of a cat with a cat;
- the obligation of the owner of the cat to return the cat safe and sound after the expiration of the term;
- the amount and terms of payment for the cat's services;
- distribution of kittens after they reach the age of 2 months (the offspring can remain completely with the owner of the cat, and can be partially transferred to the owner of the cat as part of the mating payment);
- conditions for resolving financial issues in case of unsuccessful conception, interrupted pregnancy, birth of an offspring with anomalies, death of offspring (there can be a lot of options ranging from a full refund of the amount for mating, ending with repeated fertilization, but already on a free basis).
The conclusion of an agreement will allow avoiding disputes and scandals in the event of an unforeseen development of events; it is better to negotiate all aspects of the transaction in advance.
The agreement will help to avoid all controversial issues arising in the process of mating animals
After the signs of the onset of estrus have been noticed behind the cat, the owner needs to wait 3-4 days, and then collect his pet to the cat. Mating cats involves a whole ritual that takes a lot of time:
- Having delivered a cat to a new territory, you should not force it out of the carrier. You just need to open the door and let it come out on its own when it is ready. This may even take several hours.
- Once out of the carrier, the cat will be ready to meet the cat. The pets will start sniffing, and the female's reaction will be negative - she can hit her partner with her paw, run away, hiss, etc.
- Next comes the stage of flirting. The cat will walk around the lady, purr, "sing" for her. At this time, the cat will most likely pretend that the gentleman does not interest her at all, and, letting her go to a fairly close distance, will drive it away again. If mating is the first, control by the owner of the cat is mandatory - an inexperienced animal may react too aggressively, causing injury to another.
When the cat is ready for fertilization, it will take a position with a raised pelvis and a bent tail and let the male come closer to her. The cat will climb from above, firmly fix the partner with its paws, and grab the withers with its teeth - this position is called a seat. If it is successful, fertilization begins.
To mate, cats need to take a special position - the cat climbs onto the female, holds her by the withers and hugs her paws
The coitus (mating) itself lasts 5-10 seconds, at the end of it the cat begins to scream shrilly, the cat abruptly releases it and jumps to the side, anticipating the attack. The cat, in turn, starts rolling on the floor on its back.
After fertilization, the cat begins to actively roll on the floor.
- Up to 6-8 copulations can take place in an hour, each subsequent one will be accompanied by a shorter period of flirting - the cat will no longer drive the male away from itself, allowing it to be courted. Gradually, the male will lose interest in the guest.
- After 2–3 days, depending on the activity of the relationship between the animals, the female can be taken home, even if estrus has not yet ended.
Possible knitting difficulties
Usually, when cats mate, everything goes well, since the whole process is realized under the influence of powerful instincts. But there are cases of unsuccessful mating, so it is worth preparing for possible difficulties:
The cat is not interested in the cat and shows no sexual interest. This can be due to several reasons:
- hormonal disorders - low testosterone levels reduce attraction, and the male simply will not fertilize the female, it will not be possible to solve this problem on the spot, it is necessary to examine the animal by a veterinarian;
- past negative experience - for example, if in the first mating a cat was caught by an aggressive cat that injured him (scratched or bitten), then in the future the male may refuse to mate cats that cause him a negative memory, for example, of the same color as the dangerous partner, knowing this feature of the animal, the owner of the cat should carefully choose among candidates for mating;
- the male does not like the cat - even in cats, this happens, the female or her behavior did not like the gentleman, and he will avoid her, there is nothing to be done, all that remains is to cancel the mating and look for another female.
- The cat does not come out of the carrier, is not interested in the cat. Here it is also possible that she did not like the male, but, most likely, this is how the stress from the trip and new conditions affects. Usually, it is enough just not to touch the cat and give it the opportunity to adapt, leaving it at a party for several days. If time does not help, then you will have to look for another mating partner.
- Incorrect landing. Usually this happens with inexperienced males - the cat is interested, he sits on top of the cat, fixes it, makes characteristic movements, but the penis itself does not penetrate. The problem can be solved simply by providing assistance to the animal - the owner must put his hand on the croup of his cat and put a little pressure on the back of the body, as if pushing to reduce distance and penetration.
Video: rules for mating cats and cats
How to tell if a cat is pregnant
After mating, the owner takes the cat home, after which the wait begins - whether fertilization has happened and whether there will be an addition to the cat family. The first signs of the onset of pregnancy may be:
- deterioration in appetite, vomiting for 1-2 weeks (these are manifestations of toxicosis);
swelling of the nipples, their acquisition of a more saturated pink color (especially an increase in size is easy to notice in young cats, for which the first pregnancy);
The onset of pregnancy can be determined by the redness and swelling of the nipples in the cat.
- apathetic mood, increased sleepiness - often pregnant cats save energy, refuse active games and prefer a long rest.
Over time, the signs become more unambiguous - weight gain, increased appetite and, ultimately, the growth of the abdomen and noticeable movement of the kittens in it.
Why the pregnancy did not come
It happens that mating does not end with the onset of pregnancy. Here the reason may be different factors:
- improper mating organization - the cat was brought too early (the first two days of pregnancy cannot occur) or was quickly taken away, and fertilization did not take place;
- the venerable age of the cat - with age, the functions of the body fade away, and, even despite the manifestations of sexual desire, ovulation in a cat may no longer occur, respectively, and pregnancy after mating will not occur;
- stress - especially sensitive individuals can get nervous because of being placed in a new, unfamiliar environment, which will interrupt the normal course of sexual activity;
- physiological problems - if mating regularly ends unsuccessfully, perhaps the problem lies in health; There are a lot of reasons for feline infertility, starting with obstruction of the fallopian tubes, ending with disruptions in the hormonal background, you cannot do without a visit to the veterinarian and a thorough examination.
If signs of pregnancy have not appeared, you should go to the veterinary clinic, where the cat will undergo an ultrasound scan - the results of the analysis will confirm the unsuccessful mating. What to do next will be decided by the previously drawn up agreement between the owners - perhaps the meetings will be held until a successful result, or maybe the money will be returned, and the owners of the cat will start looking for a new gentleman for her.
An ultrasound scan of the cat will help to make sure of the onset of pregnancy or not
Pregnancy after childbirth
The birth is over, the kittens are happily sipping milk, but in a month the cat may well begin a new estrus. Here the owner asks the question - how often you can have offspring without harm to health. There is no single opinion in the veterinary world.
Most doctors adhere to the position that it is better to mate the animal no more than 1-2 times a year, and clubs follow this recommendation when building their mating schedules. It is widely believed that frequent childbirth depletes the animal, but the comparison with the human body is irrelevant here - pets do not have menstruation, mature eggs cannot leave the body. The cat screams, refuses to eat, often even loses some of its fur - this is how most empty streams end, and this can hardly be called a rest for the body. Childbirth 3-4 times a year is not dangerous, but only when taking into account good animal care, good nutrition and health control. The following situations are direct indications for missing heat:
- the cat is still feeding the previous offspring - simultaneous lactation and pregnancy put too much stress on the body;
- pet disease;
- severe previous childbirth, in particular, with surgical intervention - after this, a period of rest is necessary, but often complications end in the sterilization of the animal.
The mating after childbirth will be successful if the main condition is met - the cat is completely healthy and feels great. The frequency of mating is determined by the owner of the animal individually.
Sex hunting in neutered cats and neutered cats
Neutering (removing the testes in cats or the uterus and ovaries in cats) and neutering (removing the ovaries in females) are used as methods of birth control. After such operations, the animal is unable to produce offspring. Most owners are confident that the cat or cat will completely lose interest in reproduction, so many are surprised when the pet begins to experience sexual heat. It should be said right away that this is a variant of the norm.
A sterilized cat and a castrated cat may well fall into episodes of sexual behavior, because the processes are regulated not only by the work of the ovaries and testicles, but also by hormones produced in the brain by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. In females, the consequences of the procedure largely depend on the method of sterilization. When ligating the fallopian tubes or removing the uterus while preserving the ovaries, the organs of secretion of sex hormones are fully preserved, and, even despite the impossibility of having offspring, the animal continues to estrus. The most reliable method is the removal of the ovaries or ovaries together with the uterus, but even in this case, estrus may occasionally appear against the background of the active work of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, the formation of a hormone-producing tumor, etc.
Reviews of cat owners about mating
The first mating of a cat or a cat should be done after the final formation of the body, that is, at the age not earlier than 1–1.5 years. With the right selection of partners and a careful attitude to their psychological state, mating will be successful. In the future, the owner of the cat will wait for the pet's pregnancy and childbirth, and in case of a failed conception, a new mating with the same or already a new cat.