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Blackcurrant Kernel: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Blackcurrant Kernel: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Blackcurrant Kernel: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews

Video: Growing Blackcurrants in North America | Tahsis - Incredible yields, flavor, and growth. 2022, December
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Blackcurrant Kernel: the nuances of planting and care

Cherry currant
Cherry currant

Black currant in Russia is traditionally one of the most beloved berries. There are many varieties bred by her breeders, so the gardener just needs not to make a mistake when making a choice. As a rule, they focus on taste, disease resistance, ability to adapt to harsh climatic conditions, yield and size of berries. Those for whom the last two points are important, most often choose the Yadrenaya variety.

Content

  • 1 Description of Blackcurrant variety Yadrenaya

    1.1 What does a black currant of the Yadrenaya variety look like - video

  • 2 Preparation for landing and landing in the ground

    • 2.1 Site selection
    • 2.2 Preparing the landing pit
    • 2.3 Disembarkation to a permanent place
    • 2.4 How to plant black currants - video
  • 3 Crop care

    • 3.1 Work in the garden
    • 3.2 Watering
    • 3.3 Fertilization
    • 3.4 Cropping

      3.4.1 Video: Correct Cutting of Black Currants

    • 3.5 Winter protection
    • 3.6 Video: tips for growing black currant
  • 4 Diseases and pests

    • 4.1 Table: diseases and pests characteristic of the Kernel currant

      4.1.1 Diseases and harmful insects in the photo

  • 5 How to harvest and where to store the crop?
  • 6 Caring for plantations of black currant - video
  • 7 Reviews of gardeners

Description of black currant variety Yadrenaya

Blackcurrant Kernel
Blackcurrant Kernel

Blackcurrant Kernel - a record variety in terms of berry size

Blackcurrant Yadrenaya is a relatively recently bred variety obtained at the beginning of the 21st century in the Altai Territory by specialists from the Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia. The hybrid is the result of cross-pollination of black currant Dikovinka, Bradthorpe, Lyubimitsa Altai. Only after appearing in the State Register, the variety rapidly began to gain popularity not only among domestic gardeners, but also among those who live in the countries of the former USSR. The culture is zoned in the West Siberian and Volga-Vyatka regions.

Vigorous is a rather compact bush, no more than 1.5 m high and wide. The growth rate of shoots is average. The crown is not thickened. Compared to the berries that cover the shoots, there are few leaves. On each cluster 6–12 berries ripen, easily separating from the stalk. The skin of a fully ripe currant is not damaged in any way. On one branch of an adult bush about 600 berries ripen at the same time.

Nuclear bush
Nuclear bush

The compactness of the Yadrenoy bush greatly facilitates pruning, harvesting and pest control

Leaves are medium in size, wrinkled and bumpy. The veins are grayish or brownish-pink. Due to the highly developed central vein, the leaves are slightly concave.

The culture demonstrates high adaptive properties, retaining the ability to bear abundant fruit even after the harsh Siberian winters, for which frosts below -30 ºС are quite common, and after prolonged summer droughts. Fruits ripen in mid-July, mass fruiting. One bush yields 4–6 kg of berries. If you wait another 3-5 days, Viper will become much sweeter. During this time, the berries do not fall off the bush and do not overripe.

The variety is distinguished by its early maturity. The first berries from annual seedlings planted in spring can be removed the next summer. But a more realistic prospect is to harvest 2-3 years after planting.

The main advantage of Yadrenaya is the size of the berries of an almost regular spherical shape, somewhat similar to grapes. Each berry weighs about 5–7 g, some “champions” - up to 9–9.5 g. The skin is dense, but not tough, slightly shiny in the sun. Lots of fairly large seeds. Interestingly, the berries reach their maximum size not in the warm southern regions, but at home, in Siberia.

Kernel Berries
Kernel Berries

Kernel berries are often confused with grapes - the size allows

The taste is balanced, with a slight sourness. Although the gardeners growing Yadrenaya express diametrically opposite opinions about him - the reviews range from enthusiastic to sharply negative. The average taste score is 3.8-4 points out of 5. However, like the yield, they can be improved by planting several different varieties on the plot. Cross-pollination will have a positive effect on both the quality and quantity of the fruit.

Sourness, according to some, undesirable, is due to the high, compared with most varieties of black currant, vitamin C content (about 1.5-2 times more than other varieties) - 95 mg per 100 g. By the way, in to a large extent it remains after heat treatment.

There are also some disadvantages:

  • Low indicators of keeping quality and transportability, despite the rather dense skin. Berries must either be quickly eaten fresh, or processed for winter harvesting. However, black currants are not stored for a long time in principle.
  • Demanding care. Yadrenaya bushes need constant attention. This is especially true for pruning and feeding.
  • Short life of plants. 7–10 years after planting, Nucleus has to be completely uprooted and replaced with new seedlings.

What does the black currant of the Yadrenaya variety look like - video

Preparation for planting and landing in the ground

Gardeners planted black currants of this variety both in spring (until the leaf buds bloom) and in autumn (until mid-September). The landing time is not critical, but the second option has more adherents. Before the first frost, the seedling will have time to adapt to the new habitat. In the spring, the culture immediately begins to intensively build up the green mass, there is no strength left to strengthen and develop the root system.

Planting black currant
Planting black currant

In order for each Yadrenaya bush to receive enough nutrition from the soil, it is important to maintain the required distance between them.

Site selection

The best place for planting Yadrenaya is where the ripening berries will be provided with warmth and sunlight, but light partial shade is acceptable. Ideally, from the north, the bushes should be covered by a building or other structure that protects them from sharp and cold drafts. In the shade and in the cold, the yield and taste of berries are significantly reduced.

The groundwater level is important. If they approach the surface closer than 1–1.5 m, look for another area. When this is the only option, they fill a hill with a height of at least 50 cm or provide good drainage, filling the bottom of the planting pit with river sand, small ceramic shards, and brick chips. You need to create a layer at least 5-7 cm thick. The plant also does not like cold damp air, stagnant melt water in spring, so swampy lowlands are categorically not suitable.

The soil is desirable light, breathable, in which moisture does not stagnate, but moisture is retained. The best option is podzolic, gray earth, sandy loam soil.

Unlike most fruit and berry crops, Yadrenaya prefers slightly acidic soil. Ask in advance about the acidity of the soil in the selected place, if necessary, neutralize it by adding wood ash or dolomite flour (respectively 500 or 250 g / m²).

If there are several seedlings between plants, it is necessary to leave a gap of 1.75–2 m, and between rows of bushes - 2–2.5 m. So each plant will be able to adequately provide itself with moisture and nutrition from the soil. Too close "neighbors" are undesirable, they will take away the nutrients it needs from the currant.

The best predecessors for Yadrenaya are any vegetable or decorative flowering crops. Any other currants and gooseberries are undesirable. Pathogenic bacteria, fungal spores, and pest eggs accumulate in the soil. If possible, try to move the landings at least 0.75-1 m in any direction.

Seat selection
Seat selection

Choose an area that is well warmed by the sun and install supports for adult bushes in a timely manner so that the berries do not get dirty with earth

Planting pit preparation

The planting site is weeded and dug up, while removing stones, rhizomes, and other debris. The depth of the pit is about half a meter, the width is the same. They dig it up a couple of weeks before the planned landing. The less fertile the soil in the chosen place, the deeper the hole is made and the more humus is added to it.

The upper 15–20 cm of fertile soil is poured separately, adding 10–15 liters of rotted manure or humus, 90–100 g of superphosphate and 35 g of potassium nitrate to it. Another option is chemical fertilizers containing both potassium and phosphorus (ABA, Autumn, Nitrofoska). Unripe manure, fresh chicken manure, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are not applied. The first two can simply burn fragile roots, the latter stimulates the intensive formation of green mass, which in the fall prevents the seedling from properly preparing for winter. The plant has a negative attitude to chlorine in any form, therefore, for example, potassium chloride is not suitable as a fertilizer.

The soil, mixed with fertilizers, is poured into the bottom of the planting pit in the form of a mound. Before planting, it is covered with slate or some other waterproof material.

Potted seedling
Potted seedling

If you buy a seedling in a pot or in a tub and place an entire earthen lump in the planting hole, the stress for the plant will significantly decrease.

Disembarkation to a permanent place

12-15 hours before planting, the roots of the Yadrenaya seedling are dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect, or in a solution of potassium humate, Epin, Topaz preparations to stimulate their growth. When 2-3 hours remain before the procedure, they are dipped in fresh cow dung with the addition of powdered clay (the finished mass resembles thick sour cream in consistency) and dried in the sun.

The landing itself looks like this:

  1. The soil is well moistened.
  2. The seedling is carefully placed on a mound of soil in the hole, the roots are straightened so that they are not directed upwards.
  3. Little by little, the remaining bad soil is poured. When the ground reaches the upper edge of the planting pit, the root collar of the Nucleus should remain 4–7 cm below the soil level, and the seedling itself should be slightly tilted - this stimulates the formation of new shoots. If you need a compact shrub, keep an upright position.
  4. All shoots available to the plant are cut to 2/3 of the length, leaving 3-4 leaf buds (7-8 cm).
  5. The currants are watered with heated water (3-5 liters for each seedling). After waiting for the liquid to go into the soil, the trunk circle is covered with dry peat, hay, and straw. Sawdust, often used as mulch, is not suitable in this case - they increase the acidity of the soil.
Seedling Violet
Seedling Violet

The Yadrenaya sapling planted in the ground must be watered with heated water

How to plant black currants - video

Culture care

Black currant is not the most whimsical of fruit and berry crops, but just planting seedlings in the ground and without the slightest effort will not be able to harvest regularly. The Yadrenaya variety requires care and attention from the gardener.

Work in the garden

Yadrenaya bushes intensively absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil, so the presence of plants with which you need to "share" is undesirable. The near-trunk circle is regularly weeded (by hand, without the use of herbicides), spicy aromatic greens, flowers, green manure plants, grass for the lawn, and other crops are never planted under the currants.

To reduce the frequency of weeding, an area with a diameter of 1.2–1.5 m from the base of the bush is mulched twice a year, every spring and autumn replacing a layer of old straw, peat, humus with new material. Any breathable covering material such as spunbond will also work. After removing the mulch, the soil is loosened well to a depth of 7–8 cm.

Loosening
Loosening

It is important to maintain the trunk circle in perfect condition, timely getting rid of weeds and loosening the soil

Watering

Vibrant tolerates prolonged drought well, but regular watering will help increase the size of the berries and the yield. Adult bushes are watered at intervals of 2-3 days, spending 10-12 liters of water in the early morning and after sunset for every 10-12 liters.

The best option is sprinkling. In the absence of technical feasibility, water is poured into an annular groove formed at a distance of 50-60 cm from the base of the bush.

It is especially important to provide the plant with moisture during the ripening period of the berries and the formation of new flower buds (the guarantee of the future harvest) - throughout July and August. In extreme heat, it is useful to additionally spray the underside of the leaves.

Then watering is reduced, weekly pouring 35-40 liters of water under the bush. At the end of September, the currants are plentifully watered for the last time (up to 40 liters at a time) so that the plant can normally prepare for winter. In the future, it gets by with rainwater.

Fertilization

Provided that the planting site is properly prepared for the next year, the culture does not need feeding. Fertilizers are applied to the soil from the second year of the seedling in a permanent place. During the season, the culture is fed 3-4 times:

  • As soon as the soil can be loosened in spring, granules of urea or ammonium sulfate (30 g / m²) are added to the trunk circle. From 3-4 years, this rate is reduced by half. A few days later, the soil is watered with infusion of fresh cow dung or bird droppings. In containers, the raw material is mixed with water (half the amount of manure), tightly closed and removed to heat for 3-4 days. When a characteristic smell appears, the fertilizer is intensively stirred. Before use, add water again in a ratio of 1: 8 or 1:12, respectively. If you have raw materials, you can prepare a similar solution from nettle greens.
  • When the buds bloom, simple superphosphate (60–70 g) and potassium sulfate (35–40 g) are added to the soil in dry form or as a solution. An alternative is sifted wood ash or potato peels. The latter should not only be thrown under the bush, but previously washed, dried and chopped.
  • After flowering - watering or spraying the leaves with a solution of complex liquid mineral fertilizer for fruit and berry crops or self-prepared top dressing. Potassium permanganate (3-5 g), boric acid (2-3 g), copper sulfate (25-30 g) are separately diluted in a small amount of water, then mixed, bringing the volume of liquid to 10 liters.
  • At the beginning of autumn, 2–2.5 months after picking the berries, 20–25 liters of humus mixed with superphosphate (40–45 g) and potassium sulfate (15–20 g) are distributed along the near-stem circle with a rake.

Pruning

Pruning is the most important procedure for regular and abundant fruiting of Yadrenaya. The first time it is carried out already at landing.

Trimming scheme
Trimming scheme

The Viper bush is formed according to the classical scheme

Every spring and autumn, dried, frozen, broken branches with traces of damage by diseases and pests are cut off at the root. The resulting garbage is not stored somewhere in a corner, but burned as quickly as possible. A 3-5% solution of copper sulfate is rubbed into the sections and hermetically covered with a thin layer of garden varnish. On average, you need to get rid of 15-20% of the green mass of the bush. In the spring, it is important to prune before the leaf buds bloom, and in the winter before the first frost.

Get rid of poorly located (growing too low or deep into the crown), intertwining and old (more than 5 years old) non-fruiting branches. They are cut as close to the soil as possible. Leaving "hemp" is undesirable.

Young shoots are examined annually, choosing the 3 strongest and evenest of them. Weak, curved, deformed branches are cut to the point of growth. That is, at the same time on a well-formed Yadrenaya bush, 3-4 shoots should be present at the age of one to 5 years. There are no more than 20 branches in total.

Black currant pruning
Black currant pruning

Only a sharpened, sanitized instrument is used for trimming

Video: correct pruning of black currants

Winter protection

The homeland of Yadrenaya is Siberia, so she should not be afraid of the severe Russian frosts. Proper preparation will protect plantings from too early frosts and little snow winters.

At the beginning of October, a trunk circle with a diameter of about 1.5 m is covered with rotted manure, fallen leaves, humus. The thickness of the layer is at least 5 cm. In young plants, the branches are tied in several pieces and, if possible, bent to the ground, covered with any breathable material.

If heavy snow falls, snowdrifts are raked around the bushes, periodically repeating the procedure as they settle.

Video: tips for growing black currant

Diseases and pests

The undoubted advantage of the Black currant is its resistance to such diseases characteristic of the culture as American powdery mildew, rust, and kidney mites. But she often suffers from anthracnose, and pests do not disdain the plant.

Table: diseases and pests characteristic of the Kernel currant

Disease or pest Symptoms Control and prevention measures
Anthracnose Small, but rapidly increasing and merging into one brown spots with a lighter border appear on the leaves. Small tubercles are visible on the surface - containers of spores. The areas inside dry out, holes are formed. For prevention in early spring, immediately before flowering and immediately after it, the bushes are sprayed with a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid. The soil is watered 1-2 times with Nitrofen solution (100 ml per 10 l of water). If the disease is detected during the summer, any copper-containing preparations are used - copper sulfate, HOM (copper oxychloride), Kuprozan, Kuproksat, Oleocobrite. After harvest, the procedure is repeated using Phtalan or Captan (50 ml per 10 L of water). Other drugs intended for the destruction of pathogenic fungi (Skor, Acrobat, Ridomil Gold, Previkur) are used every 15–20 days. Last treatment - 3 weeks before picking berries.
Septoria (white spot) The symptoms are the same as described above, but the spots are immediately light, almost transparent.
Terry The leaves located at the tops of the shoots increase in size and deform, stretching in length or width. The shape changes - only 3 out of 5 “blades” remain. Flowers become abnormally bright and double. The only way to avoid an outbreak in the garden is to immediately uproot and destroy the affected plants. Cropping will only make the problem worse. It is believed that insects carry the disease, so you need to devote enough time and effort to fighting them.
Tuberculariosis After fruiting, the branches on which the berries ripen and the annual shoots dry out. On their bark, small, often located bumps of a reddish color appear, similar to pimples. There are especially many of them in cracks and faults. Branches with the slightest sign of damage are immediately cut and destroyed. For prophylaxis, currants are sprayed with fungicides three times - before and after flowering, after picking berries. The Bordeaux liquid (200 ml for 10 l of water) and HOM (40 g for the same amount) give the maximum effect.

Currant glass Seemingly healthy branches dry for no apparent reason. At first, the leaves on them become smaller and fall off. On cross sections, longitudinal wide “tunnels” of a darker color than wood are clearly visible - in these places it is eaten away by larvae. Branches with the slightest signs of damage are cut to the base, leaving no stumps. Sections are rubbed with sorrel leaves or disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (500 ml per 10 liters of water). Immediately after the currants have faded, they and the soil in the near-stem circle are sprayed with insecticides Aktellik, Fitoverm, Agrovertin. The soil under the bushes is loosened every fall to deprive the larvae of wintering space. Experienced summer residents recommend surrounding the garden area with elderberry bushes, scaring away these butterflies and many other pests.
Red-gall aphid The pest settles on the underside of the leaf in whole colonies. Above, there are densely arranged swellings of cherry, pink and brownish color. To the touch, such leaves are denser, their edges curl inward. For prevention, before the leaves bloom and after harvesting, the bushes are sprayed with Aktellik. If only a few leaves are damaged, folk remedies are used - infusions of onions, garlic, tansy, wormwood, dried orange peels. Raw materials (a couple of handfuls) are finely cut, a liter of hot water is added, covered with a lid and left for a couple of days. Filter the product before use. In especially advanced cases, insecticides are immediately used - Inta-Vir, Antio, Fosfamid, Karbofos, Ambush. It will take several sprays, preferably with different preparations. This also applies to folk remedies.
Gooseberry shoot aphid Pests feed on leaf juice, starting with the youngest. As a result, they are deformed, twisted into a "bag" and wither.
Gooseberry fire Currant berries turn black and dry much ahead of time, the brushes are covered with a coating that looks like a cobweb. Small caterpillars live inside dry berries. The eggs of the fireflies overwinter in the ground under the bushes, so the best prevention is the cleaning of dead leaves and loosening the soil in the near-trunk circle. All damaged berries, which have already darkened, but have not yet dried, are collected and destroyed. After flowering, flower buds and bushes are sprayed with Aktellik, Kinmiks, Lepidocid. A folk remedy is an infusion of chamomile, tansy, yarrow, or crumbs of home-grown tobacco. You can also build traps by hanging a bright lamp with a shade made of heat-resistant plastic or glass, greased with long-drying glue mixed with jam, honey or molasses next to the currant bush.
Spider mite At first, separate thin, almost imperceptible threads resembling a cobweb appear on the tops of the shoots, then they completely hide under a layer of whitish bloom. It also covers the bottom of the leaves. To combat ticks, special preparations are used - acaricides (Zolon, Akartan, Omayt, Tedion, Metaphos). It will take 2-3 sprays to finally solve the problem. A folk remedy is an infusion of wood ash (a glass per liter of boiling water) mixed until dissolved with shavings of household or green potash soap. Until the next rain, it "sticks" to the leaves, forming a film, due to which the greens become inedible for pests. If last year there was a massive invasion of spider mites, it is useful to whitewash currant shoots about a third of the height with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of copper sulfate and clerical glue.
Currant stem gall midge The larvae settle inside young shoots, eating away tissues. From the outside, longitudinal dark dents are visible, covered with a network of small cracks. Affected shoots break easily, leaves dry and fall off on them. The best preventive measure is regular loosening of the trunk circle and pruning that does not leave hemp, cracks, or other damage on the shoots. Before and after flowering, if problems with the pest occurred last year, the bushes are sprayed with Karbofos, Trichlormetaphos.
Currant gall midge The pest destroys young, not yet fully developed leaves.

Diseases and harmful insects in the photo

Stem gall midge
Stem gall midge

Currant shoots affected by stem gall midge are very easy to break.

Leaf gall midge
Leaf gall midge

Leafy gall midge gives special preference to newly blossoming leaf buds.

Spider mite
Spider mite

If you do not take measures against the spider mite, soon the entire currant bush will disappear under a continuous layer of whitish mass

Gooseberry fire
Gooseberry fire

The greatest harm to black currants is caused by caterpillars of fire

Gooseberry shoot aphid
Gooseberry shoot aphid

Aphids are almost a "universal" pest; they will not disdain black currants either

Red-gall aphid
Red-gall aphid

By sucking juice from the leaves, the red-gall aphid interferes with normal photosynthesis.

Currant glass
Currant glass

The larvae of the currant glass, hiding inside the shoots, gnaw them from the inside

Tuberculariosis
Tuberculariosis

Tuberculariosis is easily recognized by its characteristic rounded growths on the shoots.

Terry
Terry

Terry is a viral disease that, in principle, cannot be cured, you can only save the still healthy bushes by destroying the source of the infection

Septoria
Septoria

The popular name for septoria - "white spot" - is easily explained by the appearance of the affected leaves

Anthracnose
Anthracnose

Anthracnose is one of the most common black currant diseases.

How to harvest and where to store the crop?

A warm, but not too hot, always dry day is suitable for picking Yerny. Wait for the morning dew to dry. If it rained the day before, postpone the procedure - the berries will only benefit. For collection, use shallow baskets, bowls, trays, lined or upholstered with soft material. The deeper the container, the more likely it is to transfer the berries. For the same reason, it is not recommended to overfill them.

If transportation is required, the berries are harvested in whole clusters 4–5 days before they are finally ripe. They are transported in boxes or wicker baskets with a capacity of no more than 5 kg.

The berry, like any black currant, does not differ in keeping quality, so the harvested berries need to be eaten as soon as possible, processed for winter harvesting or frozen. If there are different opinions about the taste of fresh fruits, then jams, compotes, jams are praised by everyone who has tried them.

Currant jam
Currant jam

Kernel is an excellent raw material for all kinds of homemade products

In the refrigerator, in a special compartment for fruits and vegetables, berries packed in sealed plastic bags or containers will stay for 20-25 days. The temperature of the currants should be lowered gradually to avoid condensation in the container. A significant drawback of this method is that you are limited by the space in the refrigerator.

Dried berries take up much less space, but not everyone likes them. You can dry it both naturally, and in a special electric dryer, oven, microwave. The finished product is stored in a cool dry place in linen bags.

Only freezing will help to preserve the currants for a long time without prejudice to its taste and benefits. Beforehand, the berries must be sorted out, washed and dried well on napkins or cotton cloth. Pack them in bags or containers in small portions. You will not be able to re-freeze unused leftovers.

Harvest Vigorous
Harvest Vigorous

The harvest of such black currants is guaranteed to become the envy of the neighbors.

Caring for plantations of black currant - video

Gardeners reviews

Kernel currant is an excellent variety, which, at the same time, is not devoid of significant disadvantages. It is suitable for gardeners who want to regularly harvest beautiful large berries. You will have to spend time and effort caring for bushes, fighting diseases and pests, but this is more than pays off with the abundance of fruiting, the versatility of the use of berries and the taste of currants.

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