Table of contents:
- Malina Polka - the record holder for yield
- Description of Polka
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Landing features
- Diseases and pests
Malina Polka - the record holder for yield
You can talk endlessly about raspberries, because it is she who is the hallmark of every gardener. But in order to obtain a bountiful harvest, in addition to creating optimal conditions for the plantations, it is necessary to select the best varieties. The Polka remontant raspberry is recognized as the real record holder in yield.
1 Polka Description
1.0.1 An amazing variety of remontant raspberries - video
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages
3 Landing features
- 3.1 Timing
- 3.2 Site selection
- 3.3 Selection of seedlings
- 3.4 Preparing for landing
- 4.1 Raspberry Shelf Care - video
- 4.2 Proper watering increases yields
- 4.3 Adequate nutrition
- 4.4 Correct pruning
- 4.5 Preparing for winter
- 4.6 Cropping and preparing for winter - video
- 4.7 Breeding secrets
- 4.8 Reproduction of remontant raspberries - video
5 Diseases and pests
- 5.1 Prevention and treatment of diseases - table
- 5.2 Major diseases and pests - photo gallery
- 6 Harvesting
- 7 Reviews
Description of Polka
Raspberry Polka (Polka) is one of the most popular European varieties, known for record yields (12 tons per hectare). Bred at a research station of gardening in Poland in 1998 by pollination of the line P89141 and Otm Bliss seedlings.
Refers to remontant varieties of medium ripening - end of July. The fruiting period is long - 3 months, before the onset of cold weather.
Raspberry Polka grows as a strong, straight bush
The shrub is medium-sized, 1.5–1.8 m, with not too hard spines. It grows in the form of a strong, straight bush that does not fall under the weight of ripe berries. Productivity - 2.5 kg per bush. The berries are collected in a bunch of 7-10 pieces, regular conical shape, large - 2-3 cm in length and up to 12 g in weight, red, slightly pubescent, have a pleasant sweet taste with sourness and a pronounced aroma.
Berries are collected in a bunch of 7-10 pieces
An amazing variety of remontant raspberries - video
Advantages and disadvantages
Raspberries are devoid of those disadvantages that are found in conventional varieties.
The main advantages of Polka:
- The crop is formed already in the first year with spring planting.
- Strong stems do not bend under the weight of the berries and do not need additional support.
- There is no need to bend the shoots while preparing the bush for winter, since they are completely cut off.
- The plant does not spread throughout the entire area, since due to the fibrous structure of the root, it gives a limited amount of growth.
- The berries are not damaged by pests, because by the time the fruit ripens, the insects have already passed the egg-laying period.
- Ripe fruits are distinguished by good keeping quality - they retain their qualities for a long time, do not become limp, have a beautiful appearance, regardless of whether they grow on bushes or have already been plucked.
- Polka has a high yield - with proper agricultural technology, you can collect up to 7 kg from a bush.
- The variety is resistant to many diseases and pests - spider mites, gray rot.
- The long fruiting period allows you to feast on fresh berries for a long time.
This type of remontant raspberry has many advantages.
The variety has enough advantages. Among the disadvantages are:
- poor tolerance of summer heat - at a temperature of +35 and above, the berries are baked, the bush dries up even with good watering;
- weak frost resistance - it freezes out without shelter in frosty winters;
- predisposition to diseases of the root system - rot, cancer and verticillary wilting ;
- the appearance of a small number of shoots on poorly fertilized soil.
Remontant raspberries are planted at the same time as the usual species - in spring and autumn. With early spring planting, the root system quickly forms, the aerial part grows rapidly and the harvest ripens in 3 months. The best time to root seedlings is autumn. They are planted in late September - early October, when it is still warm enough and the berry will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.
This berry culture prefers light areas, preferably on the south side of the garden. It can also grow in a shaded place, but at the same time the ripening of the fruits is delayed and the yield decreases.
Choose a sunny place for the raspberry
- Choose an elevated place where there is no stagnant groundwater.
- The area for the raspberry tree should be well warmed up by the sun and protected from the wind. Therefore, it is preferable to plant bushes on the southern side of the garden near a fence or outbuildings.
- The repaired variety grows on any soil, but prefers loose and nutritious ones.
- It does not tolerate an acidic environment, therefore dolomite and lime are introduced into the soil.
- Raspberries are transplanted every 8–10 years so that they do not lose their yield. In the same place you can put it in 5-7 years.
For raspberries, unwanted "neighbors" are parsley, grapes, sea buckthorn - the joint cultivation of these crops has a bad effect on their productivity. As "friends" he prefers cucumbers, onions, carrots, red currants, apple trees, cherries.
Selection of seedlings
Before planting Polka raspberries, you need to take care of high-quality planting material. It should be purchased only in specialized stores or garden centers where plants are tested. The seedlings should have a well-developed fibrous root system, without damage and lethargy.
Seedlings should have fibrous roots without damage
If the roots are a little dry, you need to hold them before planting for a day in Kornevin's solution, which stimulates the process of root formation.
Preparing for landing
The soil is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting:
- 2 buckets of humus, 250 g of wood ash and 150 g of complex fertilizer per 1 square meter are introduced into the soil. m.
- Strongly acidic soil is lime (600 g of lime per 1 sq. M).
- After fertilization, the soil is dug up and loosened.
Step-by-step disembarkation process:
- On the day of planting, holes are dug, leaving at least a meter between the bushes, between the rows of 1.5-2 meters.
- Ash, chicken droppings are introduced into the pits.
- The seedling is lowered to the level of the root collar - to a depth of 6-7 cm.
- Spread the roots.
- Filled with soil and tamped.
- Water well - at least 5 liters per bush.
- The shoots are shortened to 25-30 cm.
- The trunk circle is mulched with dry hay, humus, sawdust, onion peel with a layer of at least 10 cm.
- The first days young plants are shaded.
The seedling is lowered to the level of the root collar
Can be placed in rows. When laying a raspberry tree, for better illumination, it is placed from north to south. Humus is poured into the trench (1 bucket per 1 sq. M), 1 glass of ash, 100 g of ammonium nitrate are added and mixed with the ground. Roots with seedlings and buds are planted at a distance of 50 cm from each other. Cover with soil, water and mulch.
Healthy seedlings on prepared nutritious soil will take root well, quickly grow and begin to bear fruit
Polka shoots grow quickly and bear fruit in the first year of planting
Repaired raspberries are more demanding on lighting, soil fertility, moisture and heat than common species.
Raspberry Shelf Care - video
Proper watering increases yields
Polka is a moisture-loving plant. It is advisable to water it once a week (in a bucket), and in the heat more often, so as not to leave the bushes to dry out under the scorching rays. However, you cannot fill in the raspberry tree. With an excess of moisture, especially in the rainy season, the root system may suffer from a lack of oxygen, the tops of the plants turn yellow. In this case, it is necessary to reduce watering and loosening.
The ideal time to water is 6-7 am or 9-10 pm. All moisture penetrates the soil, while during the day in the sun it will quickly evaporate. Water heated in the sun is used.
There are several types of watering raspberries:
- Drip irrigation, in which moisture is delivered directly to the root, without wasting water.
- Sprinkling is carried out using a hose. In this case, the water is distributed evenly over the soil surface and leaves.
- Through grooves: grooves 10-15 cm deep are laid on both sides of the row at a distance of 40 cm from the plant, water is poured into them (5-7 liters per bush) and allowed to be absorbed. Then the furrows are filled up and the soil is loosened.
Watering is carried out throughout the growing season, especially during flowering and ovary formation. Raspberries also need moisture during the fruiting period: sprinkling is not used, the soil is moistened to a depth of 30 cm through grooves or using drip irrigation. The last watering is carried out before frosts in the absence of autumn precipitation. Moistened soil freezes more slowly, the roots do not suffer from the cold and the plant winters better.
With drip irrigation, moisture is delivered directly to the plant root
Top dressing enhances the berry bush's immunity and resistance to adverse weather conditions. Accelerate plant development and promote high yields. Repaired raspberries are very nutritionally demanding and immediately react to a lack of trace elements, especially potassium.
- Yellow foliage, poor growth and flowering are a sign of nitrogen deficiency;
- dull, dark green foliage, weak shoots, leaves shrinking - symptoms of phosphorus starvation;
- deformation and curliness of the leaves, a brown rim appears at the edges of the leaf - there is a lack of potassium;
- twisting of leaves, dying off of shoots signals a lack of calcium;
- yellowing of leaves, crushing of fruits is a consequence of a lack of iron;
- the presence of weakly growing, yellowing from the middle to the edges of the leaves indicates a lack of magnesium.
Polka responds well to the introduction of organic matter containing elements necessary for nutrition and improving the composition of the soil. Infusion of mullein (1:10), diluted with water rabbit, goat droppings (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20) are introduced into the soil in the spring after the first loosening, before flowering, and in the summer after picking berries. In the fall, the soil under the bushes is fertilized with manure, compost - by roasting in the soil, they will warm the raspberry roots in winter, and in the spring they will provide the bushes with a new supply of strength. You need to carefully feed the plants with organic matter so as not to burn them. In addition, excess nitrogen contributes to the growth of green mass to the detriment of fruiting.
Adequate nutrition for plants can also be provided by the introduction of complex mineral fertilizers. In early spring, to maintain active growth, at the beginning of flowering, raspberries should be fed with potassium nitrate containing nitrogen and potassium (3 tablespoons per 10 liters of water under a bush). When using ammonium nitrate or urea, add a glass of ash under each plant, as these nitrogen fertilizers acidify the soil.
In the middle of summer, during the fruiting period, the plants are fertilized with nitrophos (70 g per 10 l of water) so that the berries are larger.
In autumn, plants also need minerals, especially potassium. Granules of superphosphate and potassium salt are added to the soil, ash is scattered around the bushes.
In autumn, granules of superphosphate and potassium salt are introduced under the raspberry bush
Fertilizers are applied only to moist soil so as not to cause burns to the roots. After dressing, raspberries must be mulched.
An important place in the care of berry bushes is occupied by pruning, as it affects ventilation, illumination, soil moisture and, ultimately, the harvest. The optimal number of shoots on each bush is no more than 7-9.
Shoots are cut after picking berries in late October - early November. You can cut only two-year-old shoots, and then next year the whole summer and autumn will bear fruit first two-year, and then one-year shoots. But at the same time, the berries become smaller, the total yield falls. Therefore, it is common to cut all the shoots to stumps using a sharp pruner. Autumn pruning simplifies the care of remontant raspberries, because many pests hibernate on the stems.
In April, they carry out sanitary pruning, remove dry and frozen branches.
After harvesting, all shoots are cut to hemp
In May, when the shoots reach a height of 80–100 cm, the top is pinched (shortened by 10–15 cm). As a result, instead of one shoot, 4–5 grow, which helps to increase the yield of the bush. If pinching is done later, fruiting will be delayed by 2 weeks.
Preparing for winter
Polka does not tolerate frost well, so it must be prepared for wintering. Before the onset of cold weather, the stems are completely cut off, the soil is mulched with humus, sawdust, straw, peat. If the shoots are not cut off, they should be bent down, pressed with a board, so that in frost the branches are under the snow, without having time to freeze. The thicker and looser the snow cover is, the more comfortable the raspberries will be.
Cropping and preparing for winter - video
The easiest way is to reproduce by root suckers. In the second half of summer, new sprouts that have appeared around the bush dig in and separate with a small piece of the root. Young shoots are planted in a pre-prepared permanent place. It is better to do this in cloudy weather; on a sunny day, the seedlings must be shaded. Root offspring take root well and grow quickly.
Raspberry Polka reproduces well by root suckers
When propagating by cuttings in autumn, the roots with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm are cut into pieces of 7-10 cm and planted in furrows at a distance of 30 cm from each other, deepening by 2-3 cm. The soil should be well fertilized. Water the cuttings, mulch and cover with coniferous spruce branches so that the soil does not freeze. In early spring, the spruce branches are removed, the ridge is covered for 2 weeks with plastic wrap. After the appearance of green shoots, the film is removed and further care for the plantings is carried out. By the fall, seedlings obtained from root cuttings reach standard sizes.
Reproduction of remontant raspberries - video
Diseases and pests
The berry is resistant to major diseases and parasites, with good care it grows and bears fruit for a long time. Pests rarely infect this variety, since their active period of life ends by the time of fruiting. Although sometimes, under unfavorable conditions, the plant can get sick.
Prevention and treatment of diseases - table
|Disease / pest||Signs of appearance||Prevention||Protective measures|
|Verticillary wilting||Fungal disease develops in the summer at + 17-22 degrees. With a cold snap, plant recovery is observed. Symptoms appear after 1–2 years: in the summer, the shoots begin to die off, the leaves at the edges dry up and fall off, the fruits dry out.||Prevent the soil from drying out, water it in time with warm water, loosen the soil after watering.||
|Anthracnose||The reason is high humidity and thickened planting. In early spring, small purple spots appear on young shoots, which grow over time and acquire a gray color with a purple border. Brown spots appear on the leaves, holes are formed. The fruits dry up.||Do not flood the bushes, carry out sanitary pruning.
Remove and burn fallen leaves. Dig up the soil in early spring or late autumn.
|Curliness||Leaves become smaller, become wrinkled, darken on the underside. The berries lose their sweetness, dry out, the plant dies over time.||Use only healthy seedlings.||
|Purple spot||Light brown spots appear on the stems, the shoots break, the raspberries dry out.
Waterlogging contributes to the appearance of the fungus, especially in a rainy summer.
|Proper watering is essential.
Delete unnecessary branches.
|Treatment is carried out with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture at the beginning of growth, before and after flowering and after harvesting.|
|Root cancer||Tumors form on the roots, the growth of shoots stops, the leaves turn yellow, and the berries lose their sweetness.||Plant only healthy plants.
Do not plant new raspberry bushes in place of diseased plants for 2–4 years.
|Chlorosis||The disease can be caused by a lack or excess of moisture, a lack of trace elements in the soil. The leaves turn yellow first along the veins, then completely. The berries dry out before they ripen. The plant lags behind in development.||Only healthy shoots are used as planting material. Watering is systematically carried out without waterlogging the soil. They are fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.||
|Raspberry beetle||The bug eats raspberry leaves and flowers. The pest lays larvae in the berries, feeding on the tender pulp. The result is a decrease in crop volume and quality.||In early spring and late autumn, they must loosen the soil by adding tobacco dust or ash (beetles, larvae and cocoons are destroyed when loosening). For prophylaxis, in the spring, they are treated with 2% Bordeaux mixture.||
Before flowering, spray with a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 l). They are treated with Kinmix preparations 2.5 ml per 10 l) - in the phase of bud formation, Spark (1 tab. Per 10 l) - before and after flowering
|Aphid||Causes curling of leaves, curvature and shortening of shoots, reduced yield. Sucking out the juice, aphids do great harm to raspberries, especially in dry summers. A heavily affected plant withers.||Regularly remove weeds, spray with infusions of nettle (500 g per 5 l), onion husks.||
|Raspberry and strawberry weevil||You can find a weevil by pinpoint punctures in the leaf plate and damaged, fallen buds. Beetles feed on plant leaves, gnawing holes in them and drinking sap. Weevil larvae eat away the inner content of the flower bud, thereby depriving it of fruiting.||Calendula and marigolds are planted next to the raspberry tree. As a preventive measure, plants are sprayed with garlic infusion every day (150 g of chopped garlic per 10 liters of water, infused for 24 hours. The bushes are treated with capsicum infusion (1 kg of fresh pepper is infused in 10 liters of water for 2 days, filtered).||
Spray with preparations Fufanon-Nova (before and after flowering) -2 ml per 1.5 liters, Iskra-M (before flowering and after harvesting) - 5 ml per 5 liters
Major diseases and pests - photo gallery
Root cancer affects the root system, the yield decreases
Aphids do great harm to raspberries by sucking sap from plants
Plants with curly hair can die off after several seasons.
Long-nosed beetles feed on plant leaves by drinking their juice
Raspberry beetle and its larvae damage leaves and buds
In shoots affected by anthracnose, the tops die off, and the next year such raspberry bushes do not produce a crop
With verticillary wilting, the shoots turn yellow, the tops fall off, the raspberries die off
The first signs of chlorosis are yellowing of leaves and other plant parts in spring.
Purple spot affects shoots, buds, leaf stalks, raspberries dry out
Their natural enemies are used against parasites: ladybugs, ground beetles, riders. The number of beneficial insects can be increased in your area by planting plants that attract them (legumes, spices), and reducing the use of chemicals for plant treatment. They clean the garden of caterpillars, aphids and insectivorous birds: titmouses, flycatchers. It will help to get rid of pests and spraying plants with infusions of tansy, dandelion, yarrow, diluted with water 1: 5. This treatment is carried out weekly, while the years of harmful insects are passing.
Fruiting is long, from mid-July to the first frost. Even with a slight decrease in temperature, the berries ripen. It is advisable to pick raspberries in dry weather - berries that have gained moisture deteriorate faster.
The pulp is purple, firm, juicy, not watery. shiny, slightly pubescent. It features a balanced content of sugar and acid - a light pleasant sourness subtly emphasizes the dessert taste. The fruits are large, about 15 g.
Polka berries are dense, juicy, with a dessert taste
In addition to its excellent rich taste, raspberries are also very useful: they contain a number of vitamins and minerals. Dry leaves of the plant are used for the preparation of medicinal preparations. Dried twigs with berries are brewed and used as a cold tea.
Raspberry jam is not only a dessert delicacy, but also a remedy for colds
Fragrant raspberry jam is used not only as a dessert, but also as an antipyretic agent. Berry masks containing antioxidants improve complexion. Many delicious delicacies are prepared from raspberries: mashed potatoes, jams, compotes, marmalade, used in cottage cheese desserts, in sweet pastries. Berries can be frozen - this way they will retain all their useful properties for a long time.
The Polka raspberry variety is becoming more and more popular with gardeners due to its record yield and unpretentious care. In addition, the long fruiting period of remontant raspberries allows you to feast on fragrant fruits with a dessert taste in summer, and even in autumn, when there are no longer any berries in the garden. The berry bushes planted on the backyard will especially appeal to children who love fresh berries and unusually tasty raspberry jam.