Table of contents:
- Unpretentious cherries Revna: growing and care in the conditions of the Middle Lane
- Description of the Revna variety cherry and its main characteristics
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Video: Revna and other varieties of cherries for cultivation in the Moscow region
- Landing rules
- Care features
- Diseases and pests characteristic of the variety
- Harvesting and storage
- Reviews of gardeners about cherries Revna
Video: Cherry Revna: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Unpretentious cherries Revna: growing and care in the conditions of the Middle Lane
We all love cherries, and many gardeners dream of growing this crop on their site. But the trouble is: sweet cherry is a capricious tree, very demanding for heat, fertilizing, soil. In the climate of the middle zone, there are many factors that can lead to difficulties in development, a significant decrease in yield and even death of this plant. But there are certain agricultural techniques that will help you grow cherries in regions far from the south. First of all, you need to choose the right variety. For example, cherries Revna fell in love with our gardeners for their unpretentiousness in the cool and changeable climate of the middle zone.
- 1 Description of the Revna variety cherry and its main characteristics
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages
- 3 Video: Revna and other varieties of cherries for cultivation in the Moscow region
4 Landing rules
- 4.1 Choosing a seedling and a suitable place for it
- 4.2 Planting process
5 Care features
- 5.1 Barrel circle
- 5.2 Watering
- 5.3 Fertilizers and fertilizing
- 5.4 Pruning and whitewashing wood
- 5.5 Video tutorial: pruning cherries in the first year
- 5.6 Preparing cherries Revna for winter
6 Diseases and pests characteristic of the variety
- 6.1 Diseases
- 6.2 Diseases inherent in sweet cherry: examples in the photo
- 6.3 Pests
- 6.4 Photo gallery of Revna's pests
- 7 Harvesting and storage
- 8 Reviews of gardeners about cherries Revna
Description of the Revna variety cherry and its main characteristics
The relatively young variety Revna has become known since 1994, when seedlings with fundamentally new stable traits were obtained by selection of cherry seedlings Bryanskaya rozovaya using free pollination. The work on breeding the hybrid was carried out by the breeders of the Bryansk Research Institute of Lupin under the leadership of M.V. Kanshina. It was decided to name the new variety in honor of the Revna River, on the banks of which the VNII branch is located, which was engaged in the breeding of the hybrid.
Jealous has been recommended for cultivation in the Central regions of Russia. Its height rarely reaches 4 meters, the crown is elongated upward and resembles a pyramid in shape. Although young shoots grow very quickly, this does not lead to thickening of the crown.
Young shoots of the Revna cherry grow quickly, but the crown does not make the crown too thick
Flowering begins at the end of the first half of May, and after 2.5 months you can start harvesting. In sunny hot weather, ripening may occur earlier - in mid or even early July.
The white flowers of the Revna cherry are collected in inflorescences of 4 buds each, with long stamens and a pistil between freely spaced petals. The ovary is formed mainly on bouquet branches, and much less frequently (in about 20% of cases) on annual shoots. This must be taken into account when pruning, so as not to remove the fruiting branches by mistake.
Ravna flowers are collected in inflorescences and form an ovary mainly on bouquet branches
The leaf plates are dense and smooth, green in color. have an oval, narrowed upward shape and finely serrated edges.
Each adult tree produces up to 30 kg of berries. Each berry weighs about 5 g on average, but there are also larger specimens. The dark scarlet color of the dense skin seems almost black from a distance, and the juice and pulp have a pronounced red tint. The shape of the berries is ovoid, regular, vertically elongated. Healthy trees rarely produce uneven and misshapen fruits.
Advantages and disadvantages
Gardeners who opted for the cultivation of this beautiful variety were guided by data on the positive characteristics of this variety. However, it is worth remembering some of its shortcomings.
|The variety is resistant to cold winters. With additional cover, the tree tolerates temperatures as low as -25 ° C. Flowers are not afraid of frosts down to -5 ° C.||The variety does not apply to early-growing. That is, the first harvest can be obtained no earlier than 5 years after the seedling is rooted in a permanent place.|
|The bases of the skeletal branches are resistant to both cold and sunburn.|
|Since the berries of the Revna variety are not injured when they are detached from the stalk and almost do not crack, they have good transportability.||Jealous is self-fertile, so it is better to plant it on the site along with other varieties of this tree, for example:
In the absence of pollinators on a tree, no more than 5% of the fruits of a possible harvest can be set.
|The variety is resistant to bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Not susceptible to such diseases characteristic of cherries as clasterosporia and coccomycosis.|
|High taste is determined by juicy sweet pulp without fibers, as well as the content of 12.5% sugars and no more than 0.3% acids. The small stone is easily separated from the pulp.|
Video: Revna and other varieties of cherries for cultivation in the Moscow region
The Revna variety was bred specifically for temperate climates. That is why planting a seedling in the ground should be carried out in early spring, but only after thawing and warming up the soil surface. So that the tree will probably take root, have time to plant it before the leaves begin to bloom.
Revna is also great for the southern regions, where you can postpone planting to the first half of September. A mild, relatively warm winter will not interfere with the rooting of cuttings.
Choosing a seedling and a suitable place for it
From where the tree will be planted, its rooting, growth and productivity directly depend. Sweet cherries are very fond of warmth and abundant lighting, but they react hard to cold with drafts.
The ideal position for the plant would be the southwest or south side of a gently sloping hill. But the lowlands are categorically unsuitable: in spring, melt water accumulates in them, in other periods stagnation of cold air with a high percentage of humidity can be observed. Place the seedlings in an area with a groundwater table of at least 2 m from the surface and away from structures that cast a shadow.
Chereshne Revna needs a well-lit, warm place without drafts and stagnant water
Above, we talked about the fact that Pollinators are needed by Jealousy. You will need at least one more sweet cherry of a different variety about 3-5 meters from your seedling.
Sweet cherry grows well on nutritious and at the same time light soil, good air permeability. This could be:
- forest gray soil;
- fertile loam;
- sandy loam soils.
If your area is clay, silty or peaty soil, it is better to refuse to plant cherries. True, there is one way to remedy the situation: you need to fill a hill from a suitable substrate, and add river sand to the planting hole (at least 1/3 of the depth of the excavation). If the soil is gravelly or sandy, add clay when planting and water the seedling regularly.
For planting, you need to choose one-year or two-year seedlings - gardeners with experience say that there is no fundamental difference between them. When examining the cutting, focus on the following rules:
- A healthy seedling will have intact, unbroken twigs and smooth bark without visible damage.
A healthy root system is characterized by branching, vigor and the obligatory presence of many hair-thick roots. To check if the roots are alive, cut a couple of them with pruning shears or a sharp knife. The dead will be dryish, brown on the cut, the living - wet and light.
A healthy cherry seedling has strong, powerful roots without visible damage
- The ground part of the seedling consists of a trunk, a stem and young branches. On the lower part of the trunk, the grafting site should be visible in the form of a characteristic bend without any protruding hemp (these indicate that the plant was not grafted correctly and over time become a vulnerable spot for diseases).
The pit for planting Revna should be prepared in advance, even in the fall. Since the roots of the tree grow 2 m deep, it is advisable to plow the area. The depth of the pit should be up to 1 m deep and about 80 cm in diameter.
In the spring, prepare suitable soil for planting trees. You can mix 2 buckets of soil from a pit dug under a seedling with 5–6 buckets of humus or rotted manure. If the soil in your area is not fertile, take for the substrate:
- 2 buckets of soil;
- 1 liter of ash;
- 35 kg of manure or humus;
- 2 kg of ammonium sulfate;
- 3 kg of superphosphate;
- 1 kg of potash fertilizer.
You can add 600 g of dolomite flour. But it is categorically not recommended to bring urea during planting - it can have a detrimental effect on young cherries.
- Pour the prepared substrate into the pit with a slide. Attach a cherry support to the bottom of the cutout. It should be 20 cm taller than the seedling.
- For disinfection, soak the roots of the seedling in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate (1 tsp per 1 bucket of water) for a day before planting. You can also use growth stimulants: potassium humate, Epin, Topaz, according to the instructions on the package.
- Water the mound beforehand. Place the seedling on top of it, gently straighten the roots over the surface. Make sure they do not bend upward.
- Fill the hole with soil in portions, carefully compacting it from time to time to avoid air-filled voids. Make sure the seedling is level. When the hole is completely filled up, the root collar should rise 6–8 cm above the soil level.
- Compact the soil lightly and place a low earthen rampart (about 10 cm) around the seedling. Tie a tree to a support.
- Water the seedling with pre-settled water at room temperature (4–5 liters is enough). When the moisture is well absorbed into the ground, mulch the near-stem circle with sawdust, dead leaves, dry peat or freshly cut grass. This will help you spend less time watering and removing weeds over time.
Sweet cherries are usually very capricious and demanding to care for, so you have to fight for a good harvest. But the Revna variety in this sense is a pleasant exception, so caring for the trees is not difficult. But you can't let the growth and development of Revna cherries take their course.
Weeds are perhaps the biggest problem for cherries. It is imperative to carry out regular weeding with complete removal of the grass. The trunk circle should be increased annually. Already after the first year after planting the tree, its size should be at least 1 meter, after another 3 years - 50 cm more. Each year, mulch the soil in the circle with peat, dead leaves, and humus to provide nourishment and moisture to the root system and to reduce weeds.
For good ripening of berries, cherries need moist soil. At the same time, we must not forget that stagnation of water, even a short one, can have a detrimental effect on the state of the root system.
- In normal weather (warm summer without heavy frequent rains) it is enough to water the Revna cherries four times per season, that is, about 1 time per month. Each mature tree will require 5–6 buckets of water.
- In hot dry summers, it is advisable to water every 7-10 days.
- If the summer season is cold and rainy, watering can be reduced or eliminated altogether. You may need to make a drainage pit in which excess water will collect.
Thoroughly loosen the soil in the near-stem circle before watering. In this case, it is useful to immediately apply dry fertilizers, which will be quickly delivered by water directly to the roots.
Water the cherries in a timely manner, having previously loosened the soil in the near-stem circle
During pre-winter preparation, in late September and early October, Revna needs to be watered abundantly for the last time in the season, after which artificial irrigation stops.
Fertilizers and feeding
Such a feature of cherries, as early ripening, determines the culture's exactingness for feeding. The combination of dry mineral fertilizers and natural organic matter for irrigation is very well accepted. It is enough to carry out top dressing twice a season, since an excess of fertilizer will not bring a positive result.
It should be noted that the correct preparation of the pit for planting saves you from the need to apply fertilizers in the first summer; you can start feeding from next year.
- In the spring, loosen the thawed soil well, at the same time embedding humus or rotten manure in it in a ratio of 10 liters of substance per 1 m². The introduction of ammonium sulfate or urea (about 30 g / m²) will be useful. the dose can be divided into 3 parts and applied separately: before the cherry blossom, after the buds have fallen off and after another 2 weeks).
Feed the second time 15–25 days after harvest is complete. To do this, you need a mullein, an infusion of nettle greens or bird droppings. Dissolve the substance in water in a ratio of 1: 8 or 1:15 (bird droppings) and pour the infusion over the tree. Spread potassium sulfate (35–40 g / m²) and superphosphate (50–60 g / m²) around the trunk circle. Instead, wood ash can be used (approx. 300 g / m²).
Fertilizers need to be applied to the area of the near-stem circle
If the soil on your site is fertile, and the sweet cherry grows and develops well, 1 top dressing during the season will be enough.
Pruning and whitewashing wood
Although the crown of the tree does not grow too densely, you still cannot do without timely pruning. It is necessary to give the correct, convenient form. It should be carried out annually in the spring, before the buds begin to bloom.
- Do the first pruning immediately after planting the tree in a permanent place. shorten the central and 4 most developed lateral shoots by 1/3, and cut the rest straight to the point of growth.
- Next, shape the crown into a bowl. To do this, leave 5 skeletal branches and cut off the central shoot so that it rises 15–20 cm above the growth point of the last of them. Leave on all skeletal branches 2 semi-skeletal branches that grow upward from the center of the shoot.
- Cut the long shoots that have grown in the current year to 50 cm. The next season, a fan of new shoots will form in this place. Thus, you will increase the number of flower buds and especially fruiting bouquet twigs.
If you find broken, diseased, or dried branches, cut them off immediately. The same applies to shoots growing deep into the crown and downward: they make it difficult to leave and do not let sunlight and heat to the berries.
Optimal pruning scheme for Revna cherries
In early spring, the trunk of the cherry tree should be whitewashed to avoid cracking the bark. To do this, dilute 3 kg of chalk or slaked lime, 200 g of glue base, 0.5 kg of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water and mix thoroughly. Apply a thick layer of whitewash to the trunk from the very bottom to a height of at least 1 m. This will help you protect the tree from many diseases, pests and sunburn.
Video tutorial: pruning cherries in the first year
Preparing cherries Revna for winter
Even such a cold-resistant and unpretentious plant as Revna needs proper preparation for the winter period.
Carefully remove all plant debris from the trunk circle: fallen leaves, peeled berries, branches, grass. This should be done in mid-autumn. Loosen the soil well and water the plant abundantly.
In autumn, thoroughly loosen and water the soil in the near-stem circle
Prepare the solution: dilute the same amount of clay and slaked lime with water until the consistency of sour cream, add a little wood glue. Cover the trunk, forks and bottoms of all large branches with this compound. This will help keep the wood from overheating (the sun's rays will reflect off the white surface) and will provide good thermal insulation. In addition, such whitewashing will scare away hares and other rodents, greedy for tasty juicy bark in winter, from cherries.
Whitewashing will save cherries from overheating, hypothermia and burns
If whitewashing for winter is not your option, you can wrap the trunk of the tree and the largest branches with a material that allows air to pass through, for example, agril or spunbond. But keep in mind that such a shelter is optimal only at temperatures below 0 ° C. If the winter is warm, with a predominantly positive temperature, condensation will form under the material, provoking rotting in the area of the root collar.
To protect against rodents that spoil the bark of fruit trees, you can use a special plastic mesh with fine mesh.
Plastic mesh will help keep rodents out of cherries
The farther north you live, the more you will need to cover the cherry.
- Towards the end of autumn, when the cooling to 0 ° C becomes stable, make a frame around the plant in the form of a pyramid of wooden slats or reinforcement. Secure the structure to the ground so that it will not be disturbed by the wind.
Lay 2-3 layers of spunbond or agrila overlapping on the frame. Tie with rope and press the bottom edges to the ground with something heavy, such as bricks.
Build a frame around the cherry and cover it with insulation
- Check the integrity of the cover structure regularly after strong winds and snowfalls. Repair the damage if necessary.
- In early spring, when the snow melts, immediately disassemble the structure.
Diseases and pests characteristic of the variety
Despite the fact that the Revna cherry is considered resistant to external pathogenic irritants, trouble can also happen to it, which can turn into a big problem. Let's look at the symptoms of the appearance of diseases and the impact of pests on this variety, as well as learn about ways to combat them and preventive methods.
Cherry Revna is naturally immune to fungal or bacterial diseases. But the danger of infection with them appears in a damp, rainy summer, if a sick cherry grows nearby. In addition, there are diseases that adapt to changes in the external environment, therefore, it is almost impossible to develop immensity for them, and the summer resident must help the tree cope with them.
|Name||External manifestation||Possible consequences||Reason for appearance||Fight||Preventive measures|
|Chlorotic ring spot||
||Loss of up to 50% of the crop.||Can be seed or pollen transmitted by pollination.||The carrier is often aphids. The tree should be treated with one of the following means:
||Thoroughly weed not only in the trunk circle, but also away from the tree.|
|Necrotic ring spot||
||The harvest is reduced by almost 50%.||It is spread with pollen or seeds of a diseased tree; can be transmitted by vaccination.|
|Linear pattern||A yellow border appears around the veins of the leaf plate, similar to an oak leaf.||The disease is rare but can kill the tree.||Cherries were pruned or grafted using non-sterile instruments.||A diseased tree should be uprooted and destroyed.||
|Hommosis (gum flow)||On the bark, resinous drops of brown or amber appear (they are called tears of a tree).||The chronic course of the disease leads to the death of the tree.||Unfavorable external influence of the environment.||In the spring, after the temperature settles above +5 ° C, or in the fall after the leaves fall off, carry out the following manipulations:
||A significant decrease in yield up to its loss.
In the chronic course of the disease, the death of the tree is possible.
|Infection from a nearby diseased tree (usually cherry or other sweet cherry) under unfavorable conditions: prolonged dampness and low temperatures in summer.||
||Plant Revna cherries at a considerable distance from any cherries.|
|Clasterosporium disease||The leaves are covered with small round holes.|
Diseases inherent in cherries: examples in the photo
Under the influence of chlorotic spot, the leaves are covered with yellow rings.
With clotted psoriasis, the leaves are covered with small round holes
With necrotic spotting, the affected areas fall out over time from the leaf plate.
With gummosis, or gum flow, the bark of the tree is covered with resinous drops
Diseases in this variety are infrequent. But pests can create many more problems. And if you can save the crop from birds by covering the trees with a net, then insects will have to be fought with more complex methods.
|Cherry aphid||Tiny black insects. find themselves in large clusters from the inside of the sheet plate.||
|Moth||The butterfly itself is harmless, its caterpillars are of a yellow-salad color.||Caterpillars are able to completely eat a tree (leaves, buds and flowers), leaving bare branches with veins of leaf plates.||
|Cherry Saw Weaver||Black bugs with yellow spots; larvae, similar to caterpillars, are dangerous.||The larvae eat up the leaf plates and build nests from them covered with cobwebs. Can destroy all foliage.||
|Sawfly cherry slimy||An insect with a shiny black shell and membranous wings; the larvae are covered with dark mucus.||The larvae feed on the pulp of the leaves, leaving only veins.||Prepare chamomile infusion:
Insist a day, strain, add another 15 liters of water, add 15 g of household soap, mix. Spray the tree with the infusion three times a week. Discontinue processing 2 weeks before harvest.
|Cherry fly||It differs from houseflies by 4 black stripes on the wings.||
||Before flowering, treat the buds and soil under the Karbofos, Phasis, Zolon or Aktellik tree. Repeat after 10 days. Carry out no more than 4 treatments per season.||Loosen the soil at the roots regularly.
Remove fallen berries and leaves from the near-stem circle.
Hang sticky fly strips on the tree.
|Cherry pipe wrench||Emerald bugs with a scarlet tint.||They eat up flower and leaf buds; then switch to leaves. The pulp of the berries is eaten out.||
||Shake the beetles off the tree onto a cloth or newspaper spread on the ground. It is best to do this early in the morning, when pests are low.|
Photogallery of Revna's wreckers
Adults of the pipe-worm eat buds, leaves, gnaw out the pulp of berries
Cherry flies and their larvae destroy the buds, leaves and fruits of the cherry
Cherry aphids can eat all the leaves on a tree
The moth caterpillars are able to gnaw the entire tree down to bare branches
The larvae of the slime sawfly eat all the pulp from the leaves, leaving only the veins
Harvesting and storage
Sweet cherry Revna is very slow to return: you will have to wait at least 5 years for the first harvest. But after that, fruiting becomes regular and abundant.
The taste of Revna has long been noted by most gardeners. This sweet cherry is good both fresh and processed: baked goods, preserves, jams, liqueurs and compotes. Due to the natural sweetness and low acid content of the berries, you will need less sugar when processing Revna cherries than for other varieties of berries, and this is already a significant savings in the family budget.
Since cherries ripen quickly, they must be picked immediately, otherwise the berries will simply crumble. Overripe berries will attract many birds and insects to your area. In order not to lose the harvest, collect the whole cherries completely, without leaving them for later. Leave only unripe - being plucked, it will not be able to ripen, and will no longer become sweeter.
Do not pick unripe cherries, let them ripen on the branches
The collection is best done in the morning, but after the dew has dried. In addition, if it rains, you need to let the cherry berries dry. In this case, it is better to postpone the collection to the next day
Like other varieties of cherries, Revna does not have a good keeping quality. You can store it in a cold, ventilated basement for no longer than 12 days, even if the berries were picked together with the stalks. At room temperature, cherries will not last longer than a week. You can extend the fresh life of the berries up to 3 weeks by putting them in airtight bags or containers and placing them in the refrigerator (provided that the berries are not wet).
Jealousy tolerates transportation well, but does not have good keeping quality
But freezing will help you keep fresh cherries for the whole winter. To do this, rinse the berries thoroughly and dry them on a cotton cloth. Then place them on baking sheets at a short distance from each other and send them to the freezer. The quick freeze mode will cope in a few minutes; if it is absent, wait a few hours.
When the cherries are frozen, put them in bags or containers in small portions and place them in the freezer for permanent storage. Please note that after defrosting, the berries must be eaten immediately: repeated freezing will deprive them of their taste, aroma and attractive appearance.
Reviews of gardeners about cherries Revna
As you can see, the Revna cherry is an excellent option for growing in our climate. Even if you are still new to gardening, this variety will undoubtedly delight you with productivity and ease of care. In Central Russia, Revna has shown itself on the positive side as a fruit crop for private gardens, and a little further south it is grown already on a commercial scale. Share your experience in growing Revna cherries with our readers in the comments, or ask your questions.
Popular by topic
Practical recommendations for creating a decorative reservoir in the garden. Necessary materials and tools, stage-by-stage performance of work
How to make a brick brazier yourself. A step-by-step description of the work, advice on choosing the type of barbecue and the necessary materials
Detailed description of the construction of a wooden porch. Materials used, work procedure step by step
DIY step-by-step instructions for building a simple children's sandbox. Different sandbox models
Description of the mixboard, styles, location. a step-by-step description of creating a flower garden. selection of plants for mixboard