Table of contents:
- Taste from childhood - cherry Valery Chkalov
- Features of the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
- Landing features
- Cherry care
- Main diseases and protection measures of sweet cherry Valery Chkalov
- About the benefits of cherries
- Reviews about the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
Video: Cherry Valery Chkalov: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Taste from childhood - cherry Valery Chkalov
In 1974, the sweet cherry variety Valery Chkalov was successfully zoned in the south of Russia - twenty years of work of breeders of the Central Genetic Laboratory named after I. I.V. Michurin (now it is the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops) and the Melitopol Experimental Gardening Station named after V.I. M.F. Sidorenko. Differs in early ripeness and large fruit size. Gardeners often call the favorite variety Valeria.
1 Features of the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
1.1 The main advantages and disadvantages of cherries Valery Chkalov
1.1.1 Table: strengths and weaknesses
2 Landing features
- 2.1 Choosing the date and place of landing
- 2.2 Selecting a seedling
- 2.3 Planting a seedling
3 Care of cherries
3.1.1 Video: planting and pruning cherries Valery Chkalov
- 3.2 Watering
- 3.3 Fertilization
- 3.4 Autumn activities
4 Main diseases and protection measures of sweet cherry Valery Chkalov
4.1 Table: symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention of diseases
4.1.1 Photo gallery: diseases and pests of the cherry tree
- 5 Harvesting
- 6 About the benefits of cherries
- 7 Reviews about the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
Features of the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
The tree grows for 10-15 years and reaches six meters in height, possessing a spreading crown of medium foliage with a wide pyramidal shape. The rough bark of the trunk and main branches is brown with a grayish tint. Oval leaves with jagged edges are rather large, reaching 19 cm in length and 10 cm in width. The beginning of fruiting begins in the fifth year of life. Large wide fruits weighing up to 8 grams resemble a heart in color and shape. The stone is easily separated from the pulp, it is large in size and weighs up to 0.37 g. The dark red pulp of the berry with pinkish veins has a refreshing sweet-wine taste.
Cherry Valery Chkalov pleases with flowering in early May, and in early June berries are already ripening
The beginning of flowering cherry - 1 decade of May
A sunny place is preferable for planting this variety. Chereshne Valery Chkalov is not afraid of strong winds and summer drought. It grows well in light, fertile, moist soil, but does not like nearby groundwater. Withstands frosts up to twenty-three degrees.
Cherry fruits Valery Chkalov are large and weigh 8 g
The main advantages and disadvantages of cherries Valery Chkalov
For more than half a century, this variety has been consistently popular with gardeners.
Table: strengths and weaknesses
|Winter hardiness - up to 23 degrees of frost||Freezing of flower buds up to 70% at frosts above 23 degrees|
|Productivity - up to 60 kg per tree||Susceptible to diseases such as coccomycosis and gray rot|
|Early ripeness of fruits - first decade of June||Self-sterile|
|Dessert taste and large berry size|
In advance (preferably in the fall), you need to prepare a hole 60 cm deep and 80 cm wide, add a couple of buckets of humus and loosen the ground. Neighboring trees must be planted at a distance of at least three meters from each other.
Choosing the date and place of landing
For the sugar content of the berries, we choose a sunny place on a hill, and the northern wall of the shed or house will serve as additional protection from frost and wind. Poorly tolerates wood and stagnant water. Therefore, be sure to pay attention to the proximity of groundwater. If they are located above 1 meter, then drainage needs to be done. The seedling feels most comfortable on loamy or sandy loam soil with neutral acidity.
Berries are distinguished by an amazing sweet-wine taste
In areas with a warm climate, young cherry trees are planted in late autumn, before the first frost, and in the northern regions - in the spring, while the buds have not yet begun to bloom.
Since this variety is self-fertile, it is advisable to provide for the placement of two or three pollinating trees nearby. Experienced gardeners call the best of them Zhabule, Bigarro Burlat, Skorospelka, June early.
We choose plants of the first or second year of life. We carefully consider the trunk: its diameter is desirable from 1.8 cm, the bark is smooth, without wrinkles. If the tree is grafted (and you can easily find a trace of grafting), this will be a confirmation that the sweet cherry is varietal, as well as a guarantee of a good harvest. After all, grafted seedlings take root faster and get sick less. The roots of the tree are free from damage and growth. The presence of a central guide branch and at least four healthy branches will ensure the correct development of the crown.
Planting a seedling
Planting a cherry seedling, step by step instructions:
- Before planting, lower the roots of the seedling in a container of water for 8-10 hours.
- Before starting work, shorten the branches by a third.
- Add 1 kg of wood ash to the pit prepared in the fall (organic fertilizing can be replaced with 0.4 kg of superphosphate).
- Drive a peg into the center of the recess, leaving at least 50 cm of its length on the surface.
Form a mound in the middle of the hole and place the roots of the planting material on it.
The roots of the seedling need to be spread on an earthen mound
The root collar of the seedling must be left 5 cm above the ground level.In order not to accidentally cover the root collar with earth, you can put a board 5 cm thick on the hole.
The root collar should be visible above the board
- Fill the hole, first slightly shaking the tree so that the earth fills the air voids, and tamp the soil.
- Tie the seedling to the peg.
- Make a hole with a roller of earth, pour out a bucket of water.
- Mulch the soil with humus or sawdust.
Correct pruning is considered the most difficult task in the process of caring for a cherry tree.
Cherry grows quickly. Therefore, you need to prune the crown every year, which has a positive effect on the quantity and quality of the crop, reduces the risk of diseases and prolongs the life of the tree. Experienced gardeners consider the best form of the crown to be sparse-tiered, when the lower branches are the longest, and at the top of the tree are the shortest. The time of the event is the beginning of spring, while the buds have not yet swollen.
Forming the crown of a sweet cherry, the lower lateral branch of a young tree is left 50–60 cm long, and the rest are cut at its level. In this case, all branches should be 15–20 cm below the conductor. When there are no more than two lateral branches, they are shortened to 4–5 buds from the base, and the central branch is left 6 buds higher. Despite the rapid growth of shoots after this procedure, the cherry tree cannot branch.
Therefore, the creation of the crown is carried out in tiers. Branches growing at an acute angle to the trunk are removed completely. The first tier is created from branches located along the length of the trunk, 10–20 cm from each other. On the second and third tier, the number of branches is left one less than in the previous one. The inter-tier distance is maintained at 70–80 cm. During the laying of the third tier, 2-3 new shoots should be left on the first so that they are at a distance of 60–80 cm from each other and at the same distance from the central branch. The next year, the second tier is formed in a similar way, and a year later - the third.
For cherries older than the fifth year of life, the main requirement for pruning is to maintain the height of the tree at a level of 3–3.5 m and the length of skeletal branches up to four meters. Sanitary pruning is done as needed to remove broken, dry or diseased branches.
Each cut must be lubricated with garden varnish without fail. The cut-off angle must be sharp.
In autumn and spring, it is necessary to whitewash the trunk and bases of skeletal branches with a solution of lime.
Video: planting and pruning cherries Valery Chkalov
Sweet cherry loves water very much. It is enough to water once a week, but after wetting the soil up to 30 cm deep and not forgetting to loosen the soil crust.
Water the cherries abundantly so that the soil gets wet to a depth of 20 cm
Three important watering of cherries: during flowering, ripening of berries and podwinny
It is important not to forget that
- excess water during the ripening period of the berries contributes to the fact that the berries crack even on the tree;
- watering from mid-July is not required, as this leads to prolonged growth of shoots and a decrease in frost resistance.
The top dressing introduced into the soil during planting is enough for a cherry tree for three years of life, and from the fourth it needs fertilizers again.
They are divided into organic and mineral. Organic matter (humus, compost, sawdust) is fed to cherries once every two to three years, and minerals - annually. Top dressing containing nitrogen improves vegetative properties and accelerates foliage growth. Therefore, ammonium nitrate is used as such a top dressing in April and June at the rate of 20–25 g / m 2. Organic is introduced in August. A solution of cow dung or poultry manure is suitable. Phosphate-potassium fertilizers (for example, superphosphate at a dosage of 15–20 g / m 2) are used in autumn.
A few hours spent in the fall will turn into a pleasing cherry blossom next year and an excellent harvest of aromatic berries with a wine-sweet taste.
- Top dressing of cherries in September is carried out in the near-trunk circle with superphosphate at the rate of 50 g of granules per 1 square meter.
- Sub-winter watering is recommended to saturate the soil with moisture. Carrying out time - before the autumn loosening of the soil.
- Covering the trunk with burlap, paper or pine paws will help the tree overwinter.
Talking about other aspects of cherry care, gardeners say the main problem is poor protection against a number of diseases.
Main diseases and protection measures of sweet cherry Valery Chkalov
Growing a cherry tree is not easy, and it's not just the climate. Trees are affected by pests and diseases, which also leads to a decrease in yield and plant death. Therefore, it is extremely important for the gardener to identify the pest or virus that has appeared on the plant in time, to know the symptoms of diseases and how to protect against them.
Table: symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention of diseases
|Coccomycosis||Most often, the leaves are sick, to a lesser extent - shoots and fruits. Rainy weather contributes to the development of the disease. In June, small reddish-brown spots appear on the leaves, which increase in size over time, and can cover most of the leaf. The development of the disease leads to premature leaf fall. Secondary growth of shoots is possible, which reduces productivity, the tree weakens, its resistance to frost decreases. The fungus can overwinter in the tissues of the affected leaves.||At the end of flowering, treat the cherry crown with Bordeaux liquid.||In autumn, remove all fallen leaves, dig up the soil around the trunk and spray with copper sulfate.|
|Moniliosis (gray rot, monilial burn)||All stone fruit trees are susceptible to this disease. Gray rot is manifested by drying first of the flowers, and then of the branches, rotting berries. With increased atmospheric humidity, grayish clusters of fungal spores appear on the ovaries, resembling pads. Over time, they appear on berries. As a result, the fruits shrivel and dry out. If effective treatment is not taken, the tree may die.||Spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid at the end of flowering. Repeatedly - 2 weeks after harvest. Bordeaux liquid can be replaced with such approved fungicides as Skor, Topaz, Horus according to the recommendations for use.||Removal of affected shoots, fruits and fallen leaves. It is better to burn them to avoid re-infection.|
|Black cherry aphid||The main food for the larvae of aphids is the leaves, which at first stop growing, then they are covered with sticky sweetish waste of the aphid's vital activity - the basis of nutrition for the sooty fungus. As a result, the leaves curl, dry out, turn black. In young trees, on which this pest lives, crown growth decreases, while flower buds do not form in those bearing fruits, and the quality of the berries becomes much worse.||Herbal preparations with insecticidal properties have been well recommended in countering aphids: a solution of tobacco dust (0.2 kg per 1 bucket of water) with a small amount of liquid soap, an infusion of garlic (insist 0.3 kg of chopped garlic per 10 liters of water for 20 minutes). The solution must be applied fresh.||In early spring, before bud break, spray the tree with Confidor (1.5 g per 10 l) or Fitoverm (1.5 ml per 10 l). After 14 days, repeat the treatment.|
|Cherry fly||This pest is most dangerous for sweet cherries with medium and late ripening. The basis of nutrition for fly larvae is flower nectar and berry juice. The fruits damaged by them turn black, begin to rot and fall off. In this case, the larvae get out of the fruit and hide in the ground until next spring. This pest can destroy up to 90% of the crop.||Brightly colored fly traps are actively used by gardeners in the fight against cherry fly. The traps covered with petroleum jelly are hung on cherry branches at a height of 1–2 meters and left for three days. If during this period more than 5–6 flies have stuck to the trap, then the time has come for spraying with Actellik or Confidor preparations. After 14 days, repeat the treatment, but no later than 20 days before the start of fruit collection.||
|Leaf rollers||Caterpillars of these moths gnaw buds, flowers and eat leaves, leaving only a cobweb of veins, and later spoil the berries. Caterpillars of the subcortical leafworm violate the integrity of the bark of the lower part of the trunk, gnawing through the passages.||At the end of the harvest, the damaged parts of the trunk and branches are cleaned and covered with garden putty, and the whole plant is sprayed with a high concentration of chlorophos solution. In the spring, before the buds begin to bloom, the procedure is repeated.||Autumn digging of earth in the hole.|
|Cherry pipe wrench||The larvae of this pest damage the berries by gnawing the kernels of the seeds.||As soon as the cherry blossoms, the crown is sprayed with Aktara (1.5 g per 10 l of water). After 14 days, re-treat with Aktellik, Metaphos or Karbofos according to the instructions for use.||Remove fallen leaves and fruits. It is better to burn them to avoid re-infection. Dig up the soil around the tree.|
Photo gallery: diseases and pests of the cherry tree
Grayish spots on the leaves are the first sign of coccomycosis
Coccomycosis affects cherry fruits
Gray rot is easy to identify by the drying ovary
Fruit affected by moniliosis must be removed
Leaves are the main food for aphids.
Cherry fly larva infects cherry berries
The first sign of the appearance of a pipe worm is leaf rolling.
Harmful to the crop is not only insects, but also birds pecking ripe berries. To scare away bird lovers to feast on cherries, gardeners hang rustling products from empty plastic bottles, foil, unnecessary laser disks on the branches.
Cherry Valery Chkalov belongs to the early maturing varieties. The berries ripen in mid-June. The yield of sweet cherries is highly dependent on the climate in which they grow. The collection of fruits from one tree in Crimea, southern regions of Ukraine and Russia reaches 60 kg, in central Russia - half as much. Experienced gardeners note the good transportability of this famous variety. To do this, you need to pick the berries along with the stalk. The shelf life at room temperature will not exceed five to six days, and when the temperature drops to 0 ° C and high humidity, the berries will last up to two weeks. In order to feast on cherries in winter, they freeze it, prepare jams, compotes, juice.
Cherry berries Valery Chkalov are large
About the benefits of cherries
Of course, this berry is the most delicious fresh
In addition, sweet cherries have proven themselves in folk medicine and cosmetology. This is a wonderful tool in the fight against vitamin deficiency. In folk medicine, cherry berries are used for a diuretic and tonic effect, participate in weight loss and improve overall well-being. Sweet cherries come to the rescue with joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, providing an analgesic effect. Cherry juice improves digestion, lowers the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, strengthens the walls of small blood vessels, helps with high blood pressure.
Cherry berries are a delicious cure for many ailments
Reviews about the cherry variety Valery Chkalov
It should be noted that cherries cannot be simply planted and forgotten. But if you regularly carry out simple agrotechnical measures, then you will certainly be rewarded with an excellent harvest of this dessert berry.
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