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Aluminum Entrance Doors: Varieties, Accessories, Installation And Operation Features
Aluminum Entrance Doors: Varieties, Accessories, Installation And Operation Features

Video: Aluminum Entrance Doors: Varieties, Accessories, Installation And Operation Features

Video: Schüco aluminium entrance doors 2022, December
Anonim

Aluminum entrance doors

Aluminum entrance doors
Aluminum entrance doors

Aluminum doors are slowly but steadily replacing wooden doors. There is a simple explanation for this. Compared to wood, metal has a longer service life. Wood is inferior to aluminum in strength and, in some cases, in price. An important point is the resistance of aluminum to corrosion, the destructive effects of atmospheric and biological factors.

Content

  • 1 Types and designs of aluminum entrance doors

    • 1.1 Video: production of aluminum profiles
    • 1.2 Entrance aluminum doors
    • 1.3 Internal aluminum doors
    • 1.4 Swing doors
    • 1.5 Sliding entrance doors

      1.5.1 Video: sliding aluminum doors in the apartment

    • 1.6 Folding aluminum doors
    • 1.7 Pendulum entrance doors
    • 1.8 Revolving door construction
  • 2 The sequence of work on the installation of aluminum entrance doors

    2.1 Video: installing an aluminum entrance door with your own hands

  • 3 Accessories for aluminum entrance doors

    • 3.1 Closer

      3.1.1 Video: how to choose a door closer

    • 3.2 Stopper

      3.2.1 Video: installing a bumper on the door

    • 3.3 Viewing peephole
  • 4 Repair and adjustment of aluminum entrance doors

    • 4.1 Procedure for diagnosing and adjusting a metal door

      • 4.1.1 Suspension adjustment
      • 4.1.2 Replacing the insulating glass unit
      • 4.1.3 Video: DIY replacement of a broken glass unit
      • 4.1.4 Changing the lock
      • 4.1.5 Video: Replacing the metal door lock

Types and designs of aluminum entrance doors

The aluminum profile from which the doors are made is obtained by hot pressing. This is a complex and multi-stage technological process. The structure of the profile is heterogeneous; chambers filled with air are located inside. The more chambers, the lower the thermal conductivity of the profile.

From a consumer point of view, aluminum doors have certain pros and cons that must be considered when choosing. The advantages are in the following performance characteristics.

  1. The service life declared by the manufacturer is 100 years or more. With proper use, only rubbing parts have limitations in durability - door hinges, locks and rotary handles.
  2. Structural strength. Due to its multi-chamber structure, the profile can withstand high fracture loads. The reliability of aluminum doors is comparable to that of a steel structure.

    Aluminum profile
    Aluminum profile

    The strength of profiled aluminum increases in proportion to the number of ribs

  3. High soundproofing qualities. Profile cavities dampen vibration and noise from the outside.
  4. Ecological cleanliness. The source material is absolutely harmless to humans and animals - during operation, it does not emit poisonous and toxic substances.
  5. Resistant to corrosion and weather conditions. This property makes the door practically invulnerable, the aging of the material is very slow.
  6. No need for care. To service the door, no special substances, materials or fixtures are required.
  7. Resistant to fire. As a rule, aluminum entrance doors belong to the G1 flammability class (do not burn, do not support combustion, do not emit gases harmful to human health when heated).

There are also drawbacks to aluminum doors.

  1. Relatively high price.
  2. Great weight. The mass directly depends on the thickness of the profile walls. The thicker they are, the more massive the product. The strength is, of course, also increased.
  3. Lack of wide serial production and standard models of entrance doors.
  4. Doors are most often made to order according to individual projects. This increases their cost and production time.

The classification of aluminum doors is based on the type of profile from which the entrance door is made. Distinguish:

  • cold profile. Used for interior doors, as well as in rooms where thermal conductivity does not matter;
  • warm profile. It differs from the cold one by the presence of a thermal break - a plastic insert that prevents heat from moving from the inner surface of the profile to the outer one. For the production of aluminum entrance doors, only a warm profile is used, which does not allow cold to pass into the building.

    Differences between a warm profile and a cold one
    Differences between a warm profile and a cold one

    The warm profile has plastic inserts that do not let out warm air from the room

Video: production of aluminum profiles

Entrance aluminum doors

In the basic configuration, the entrance aluminum door consists of the following structural elements.

  1. Door frame. Profile thickness from 75 mm, number of chambers - from 5 and more.
  2. Door leaf (sash). It consists of a frame with a smaller insulated profile (about 50 mm thick with 3–5 air chambers).
  3. Locks. Locking devices of various types and types are used. For safety reasons, it is desirable to use crossbars with several points of web fixation.

    Entrance lock
    Entrance lock

    For the front door, overhead and mortise locks of increased secrecy are used

  4. Loops. The minimum quantity is 2 pieces, in order to increase protection and for heavy doors, a 3-hinge installation is used.

    Internal door hinges
    Internal door hinges

    For entrance doors, internal hinges are often used that are inaccessible for burglary.

  5. Glazing (double-glazed window). The thickness can vary from 24 (single chamber) to 32 mm (double chamber). Tempered glass or with a protective film (triplex).
  6. The rest of the fittings, including the peephole, lock, door closer, handles - the equipment may vary.
  7. Threshold. It is made of profiles with a reinforced structure using seals.

    Door threshold
    Door threshold

    Installation of the door sill strengthens the rigidity of the door structure

When purchasing an entrance aluminum door, you must keep in mind the following nuances.

  1. When choosing, make sure that the door is made of the door profile. Some enterprising dealers make entrance doors from aluminum window profiles, which are much weaker in their characteristics. Visually, the door profile, for obvious reasons, is wider (from 75 mm and above) and more massive in appearance (the thickness of the profile walls is from 1 mm). You should also not confuse entrance doors with balcony doors. Despite the structural identity, it is permissible to make balcony doors from a window profile.
  2. Before concluding a contract for the manufacture and installation of an aluminum door, it is advisable to read the recommendations and reviews about the company. It is preferable to interact directly with the sales department of the manufacturer, rather than with intermediaries.
  3. Coloring of the outer surface of the profile. A clear criterion for assessing the quality of a profile. The original factory paint has no smudges or roughness. If such defects are found, this indicates a hand-painted product.

    Aluminum profile painting
    Aluminum profile painting

    The factory painting without smudges and roughness is a sure sign of the quality of the aluminum profile.

  4. Signs of a warm profile. It is impractical to use a cold profile for the front door - the canvas will freeze, and condensation forms on the inner surface (and in winter - frost). The cross section of the warm profile is provided for fixing thermostatic interlayers. They are sharp serifs (teeth) that fix the thermal insulator. Thermal break thickness - at least 2 cm.

    Thermal insert in aluminum profile
    Thermal insert in aluminum profile

    A plastic insert inside the aluminum profile prevents it from freezing

  5. The quality of the seals. So that after the first year of operation, cracks and ruptures do not appear on the seals, silicone or EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber) should be used as the material for them. In the corners of the box seal glued or laid at an angle of 90 to without tearing. No gaps allowed.
  6. Completing fittings. The hinges should be larger and more massive than window or balcony hinges. Ideally, you should use internal hinges that cannot be broken into. The doorknob should turn smoothly, without clipping or bouncing. The movement of the locking bolts (crossbars) is free, without backlash. If the door is equipped with a glass unit, which happens quite often, all fasteners (for example, glazing beads) are located only on the inside.

    Door structure
    Door structure

    Components for an aluminum entrance door must be of high quality, made of expensive materials

  7. The corners of the door leaf. To increase the rigidity of the frame and frame, additional metal brackets are installed in the corners. The European standard for angle fixing is pressed-in pins (not screws). Corner joints must be treated with silicone sealant.

If all these conditions are met, the acquired door will serve for many years. If something is wrong, ask your manager about the reason for the design change.

Internal aluminum doors

Internal doors are also made of aluminum, designed to delimit areas of activity. They are used in office premises, fitness centers, and in the arrangement of exhibition halls. A characteristic feature of interior aluminum doors is the base profile thickness - it is 40–48 mm. The rest of the components, including locks, glazing and other fittings, are selected when placing an order. The door is usually installed in partitions made of plasterboard or other panel materials, as well as in aluminum and glass office partitions.

Office aluminum partitions
Office aluminum partitions

Glass office partitions are often equipped with thin-profile internal aluminum doors

In private house building, aluminum doors can be used as interior doors. They are made from a cold profile and are deaf, partially or fully glazed. According to the type of suspension, swing and sliding, as well as single-leaf and double-leaf models are produced.

According to the method of opening the door leaf, aluminum doors are divided into several types.

Swing doors

In the swing structure, the leaf is swung open by turning around the suspension axis. This is the most common type of front door.

Hinged aluminum doors
Hinged aluminum doors

Swing doors are opened by turning the door leaf around its axis

Swing doors can be single-leaf, double-leaf and have an insert in the form of a transom.

Sliding entrance doors

Sliding doors are installed in small rooms to save valuable space. To pass through such a door, it is necessary to move the door leaf to the side along the guide profile located in the horizontal plane. The principle of operation is similar to the mechanism of sliding wardrobe doors (for this, sliding doors are often called “sliding doors”).

Sliding aluminum doors
Sliding aluminum doors

Sliding doors save valuable space by opening to the side

Video: sliding aluminum doors in the apartment

Folding aluminum doors

In a folding door, the sash is a set of planes connected by hinges. Other names for this type are "book" or "accordion". They are used in apartments with a small area. Incomplete use of the doorway is considered a negative property of the structure; when folded, the canvas takes up part of the space (15–20%).

"Book" type aluminum door
"Book" type aluminum door

Aluminum accordion door is easy to use, but takes up more space than a sliding structure

Pendulum entrance doors

In a pendulum structure, the door leaf does not have a support frame and can rotate 180 °. The return to the starting position is carried out by a closer mounted in the hinges. Aluminum swing doors are used in public places with a large flow of people in different directions (for example, at the entrances to metro stations). They can also be installed in residential premises on the aisles to the living room or kitchen or gym.

Pendulum aluminum door
Pendulum aluminum door

Pendulum doors are used where there are streams of people moving in different directions

Revolving door construction

As the name implies, the carousel door type differs in that it rotates 360 degrees (like a carousel). The door leaf is fixedly fixed on the movable axis. Most often, these doors can be seen in supermarkets, cinemas or hotels. Large stained glass windows make the door transparent and heavy.

Revolving aluminum door
Revolving aluminum door

An air conditioning and heating system is installed inside the aluminum revolving door

The sequence of work on the installation of aluminum entrance doors

Depending on the design of the doors and the suspension, the installation procedure can vary significantly. The main provisions that are recommended to rely on when assembling an aluminum door are paragraphs of the manufacturer's installation instructions. A manual is included with each product, detailing the door assembly and installation process.

For example, consider the procedure for installing swing aluminum entrance doors.

  1. Preparing the doorway. An obligatory part of the installation, which is sometimes undeservedly neglected. The positioning accuracy and frame fixing strength depend on the state of the opening. The walls are cleaned of the remnants of the previous structure, polyurethane foam, and fallen off plaster. The opening dimensions are aligned vertically and horizontally. It is necessary that the shape of the hole is rectangular; it is advisable to pre-align and plaster the inner ends of the opening. Before direct installation of the door, the opening is treated with a primer "Betonkontakt".

    Preparing the doorway
    Preparing the doorway

    Before starting the installation of doors, it is necessary to level the doorway, for example, by applying a layer of plaster

  2. Installation of the door frame. It is carried out in several stages. The first one is preliminary, fixing on mounting wedges. The threshold is set in the horizontal plane, the side frames of the frame - in the vertical. The permissible error is 3 mm for the entire height of the door block (or 1 mm per linear meter). The edge of the frame is aligned with the edge of the wall, and is also exposed in two vertical planes: longitudinal and transverse. Control is carried out using a building level or a laser level.

    Front door frame alignment
    Front door frame alignment

    The frame is leveled in all planes, if necessary, installing pads from scrap materials

  3. Holes for anchoring are drilled in the sidewalls. The diameter of the fastener in accordance with the norms for the installation of metal doors must be from 10 mm. Accordingly, the hole diameter is 1 mm larger. The building standards stipulate the distance between the fixation points - at least 70 cm. This means that in a typical frame with a height of 2 m, 3 holes are drilled on each side. The threshold and the upper crossbar are attached at two points - 2 holes are also drilled into them.

    Installing the door frame
    Installing the door frame

    After alignment in all planes, the door frame is fixed to the wall using anchors installed in the pre-drilled holes

  4. After passing the door frame, it is necessary to transfer the holes into the thickness of the wall. For this, their centers are marked with a pencil. The frame is removed and the nests for the anchor struts are prepared with a punch. The box is then returned to its place and secured. It is necessary to tighten the fastening bolts gradually, without distortions of the frame, constantly monitoring its position. Experienced craftsmen carry out a tightening in two circles, starting from the bottom. The first time the thread is screwed in half-strength, the second time - with maximum effort.
  5. After installation and fastening of the frame, the door leaf is hung. The work must be carried out by a team of at least two people. The metal sash is heavy, careless movement can scratch it and spoil its appearance. Connect the loop is made in the open position when the blade is at 90 on the frame. For ease of installation, boards are placed under the far edge of the canvas.

    Door leaf installation
    Door leaf installation

    The installation of the front door leaf must be done by at least two people.

  6. After that, the operation of all components is checked - hinges, locks, handles:

    • if the hinges are correctly installed, the size of the gaps along the entire perimeter of the door leaf should be the same. At the same time, the canvas moves evenly without touching the threshold or other parts of the frame;

      Door unit clearances
      Door unit clearances

      During installation, it is necessary to observe the technological gaps, the size of which should be the same along the entire perimeter of the door leaf

    • the operation of the lock is considered satisfactory if the closing is performed without effort, smoothly, in several key turns. When closed, the door leaf should not have any backlash;

      Checking the operation of the front door lock
      Checking the operation of the front door lock

      The front door lock should close smoothly, without unnecessary effort and extraneous noise

    • the rotary door handle is located 90–110 cm from the floor. It should provide comfort and convenience in door operation. The locking latch must engage smoothly and reliably.
  7. The mounting gaps between the door frame and the walls are filled with polyurethane foam. It is recommended to start blowing from the bottom, gradually moving upwards. Polyurethane foam with a low expansion coefficient is used. To improve adhesion and solidification rate, the gap is pre-sprayed with water from a household spray bottle. It should be remembered that when expanding, the foam increases by about 30-40%, therefore it is recommended to fill the joints by a third of the total volume.

    Mounting gap treatment
    Mounting gap treatment

    Foam filling should be done with consideration for future expansion of the material

  8. Complete drying of the foam lasts from 12 to 24 hours (see the instructions on the can). After that, using a knife, the excess protruding above the plane of the wall is removed. Do not forget that the foam serves not only to strengthen the structure, but also plays the role of a thermal and sound insulator, therefore the level of comfort inside the room depends on the density of filling the cracks.

Video: do-it-yourself installation of an entrance aluminum door

Accessories for aluminum entrance doors

Above, we have listed the standard equipment of aluminum entrance doors. Some accessories need to be added to it: door closers, door travel stops and door peepholes.

Door closer

This is a device that guides the movement of the door leaf according to the set settings. It is difficult to overestimate its importance if you understand that 90% of the problems arise from banging and banging the door leaf on the box. Vibrations and mechanical stress gradually disable locks, handles and breaks the hinges.

Door closer
Door closer

The door closer extends the life of the door block, softening its impacts and bangs on the frame

The closer is selected according to two parameters:

  • along the width of the door leaf;
  • by weight of the door leaf.

There are spring and oil (hydraulic) closers. In individual construction, spring products are more often used, in which a powerful steel spring is the main driving element. You can install and adjust the closer yourself, for this you need to carefully study the instructions and technical data sheet of the product.

Video: how to choose a door closer

Stopper

The door leaf travel stop is used in cases where it is not possible to install a door closer. The stopper is a rubberized metal cylinder, which is mounted in the extreme position of the opening door leaf. With a sharp opening of the canvas, the limiter does not allow it to turn 180 ° and thereby protects the hinges from excessive load. With frequent turning of the door leaf, the hinge mechanism is unbalanced and their fastening loosened with all the ensuing consequences.

Door stopper
Door stopper

The door free-play limiter is mounted in the base of the floor at the point of maximum door opening

Installation of a stopper is especially important for heavy entrance doors. Large weight and inertia can destroy the hinges very quickly. In addition, the bump stop prevents the door handle from hitting the wall. Installation of the limiter is not difficult, you only need a drill or screwdriver. Details can always be found in the product data sheet.

Video: installing a bumper on the door

Observation peephole

The peephole in the usual sense is an optical device that allows you to inspect the space behind a closed entrance door. If glass is inserted into an aluminum door, then, of course, there is no need for a peephole. But when the door is deaf, he is definitely needed. And for this it is not necessary to drill through the canvas. Today, electronic video surveillance systems have been developed, which have a low cost, comparable to the price of traditional optical eyes. The webcam is installed at the top of the doors, and the image is displayed on a self-powered monitor or on a phone screen. If the house is equipped with an intercom or an integrated video surveillance system, then there is no need for additional devices.

Electronic door peephole
Electronic door peephole

The electronic peephole can partially perform the functions of an intercom if a voice option is connected to it

Repair and adjustment of aluminum entrance doors

The main signs that indicate a critical need for repair or adjustment of an aluminum entrance door are as follows.

  1. Tight opening and closing of the door leaf. The reason is the sagging of the sash on the hinges.
  2. Increasing the gap between the door frame and the leaf, reducing heat and sound insulation. A common cause is a distorted seal, wear or damage to the silicone layer.
  3. Grinding, rubbing, metallic crunching and other unpleasant sounds that occur when opening doors. A possible cause is clogging or loosening of the hinges or a violation of the position of the blade relative to the frame.
  4. Backlash in the door leaf, loose closing of doors, which are accompanied by problems with the lock (closing and unlocking are difficult, the bolts may jam). Probable reasons - displacement or imbalance of the hinges, failure of the locking mechanism.

The procedure for diagnosing and adjusting a metal door

Before proceeding with the repair, you must arm yourself with the following tools:

  • a set of screwdrivers;
  • lubricant for moving parts;
  • socket and hex keys;
  • with a file.

    Door adjustment tools
    Door adjustment tools

    Instead of aerosol "VD-40", you can use spindle or engine oil to lubricate the rubbing parts

The first to suffer from a malfunction is the silicone seal. Therefore, when carrying out repairs or technical maintenance, it is advisable to stock up on a new seal. In 90 cases out of 100, it requires replacement.

Suspension adjustment

The condition of the door seal can determine the cause of the problem. Deformation of the material indicates excessive loads, therefore, a careful examination of the seal will tell you where the friction has arisen. The main reason for skewing the door leaf is usually hinge defects. To make sure of this, you need to open the canvas and try to lift it up by the handles. If at the same time there is a noticeable backlash, then everything is not in order with the suspension.

Adjustable door hinges
Adjustable door hinges

Quality door hinges usually have adjusting screws

It is possible to adjust and change the hinges if their design allows it. In most cases, this is exactly the case. Therefore, when purchasing a door, you need to keep all the technical documentation, which includes instructions for adjusting the hinges. Following the instructions of the manual, you need to set the doors to their original working position. The adjustment takes place in three planes:

  • in width;
  • by height;
  • in depth of fit.

    Door hinge adjustment diagram
    Door hinge adjustment diagram

    Adjusting screws allow you to change the position of the door in all three planes

The screws are rotated using hex keys. Before starting to adjust the hinge, it is recommended to lightly lubricate with light machine oil (spindle oil or, for example, WD-40). On some internal hinge designs, the hinges must be released before turning the adjusting screws. When finished, re-tighten the locking screw.

Replacing a glass unit

If the entrance door contains a translucent element and the glass is damaged in some way, it is necessary to replace the glass unit. To do this, first of all, you need to remove the dimensions of the glazing and order a new part. When it is made, we proceed to replace it.

  1. The decorative overlays are dismantled to hide the access to the glazing beads. They can be fastened with a plastic clip or with silicone glue. In both cases, the lining must be removed carefully, since you will have to put them in their original place. Sometimes the cover is bolted to simplify the task.
  2. The glazing beads are unscrewed. Usually they are fixed on self-tapping screws, which are recommended to be lubricated before unscrewing. In this case, care must be taken, and the lubricant should be applied pointwise, without the formation of smudges.
  3. The damaged glass is removed. It is imperative to use protective glasses and gloves - the glass fragments are very sharp and can injure the skin.
  4. The seat is carefully cleaned, small debris is removed. After that, the ends of the new glass unit are coated with a thin layer of silicone sealant (this is necessary to seal the window) and inserted into the rubber edging.
  5. The new glass is installed in its original place and reinforced with glazing beads.
  6. Last but not least, decorative plastic (or aluminum) overlays are mounted.

Video: DIY replacement of a broken glass unit

Lock replacement

Unfortunately, locks are not always as reliable as we would like. At the first sign of malfunction, the lock must be disassembled and repaired or replaced. Otherwise, you can find yourself in an unpleasant situation when, due to a damaged castle, it is impossible to get into your own house or apartment.

The reason for the breakdown of the locking device may be a manufacturing defect, poor-quality parts or violation of operating standards. For example, if the door hinges are loose, and the canvas sagged, then soon you need to expect surprises from the lock. The skew of the sash leads to the fact that it works in unnatural conditions, and this quickly disables it.

Perform the following operations to repair the lock.

  1. Unscrew the fixing screws at the end of the door leaf.

    Removing the fixing screws
    Removing the fixing screws

    In order to remove the lock, it is necessary to unscrew the screws that fix it in the seat

  2. Release the door handle fastening (if fitted together with the lock).
  3. Remove the locking mechanism from the installation slot, while disconnecting the bolts.
  4. Disassemble the lock case and determine the cause of the problem.

    Door lock repair
    Door lock repair

    To determine the cause of the breakage of the lock, it is necessary to remove the top cover and gain access to its actuator

  5. Replace the damaged part.
  6. Assemble and install the lock in the reverse order.

If, during disassembly, it was found that the restoration of the lock is impossible or does not make sense, the lock is changed completely. In this case, it is important not to be mistaken with the size and principle of the mechanism. The new lock must be selected in accordance with the seat and the location of the drive rods. It is best to purchase an identical type of lock, the same make and model.

Video: replacing a metal door lock

No matter how pleasant the savings in self-installation and repair of entrance doors are, you still need to soberly assess your strengths. If you are not sure, it is better to seek help from experienced craftsmen. In addition to the fast and high-quality provision of the service, the customer receives warranty obligations from one to three years, including ongoing preventive maintenance. It is worth paying for this if there are concerns that doing the work with your own hands may not work.

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