Table of contents:
- Pear Moskvichka: cultivation features
- Description of the Moskvichka variety
- Features of planting pears
- Diseases and pests of the variety
- Variety reviews
Video: Pear Moskvichka: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features + Photos And Reviews
Pear Moskvichka: cultivation features
The pear tree is the decoration of any garden. Therefore, many gardeners are ready to start not one, but several trees of different varieties. Pear Moskvichka is an excellent choice for Russian cold winters. It is unpretentious, frost-resistant, and the yield is stable and tasty.
1 Description of the Moskvichka variety
1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
2 Features of planting pears
- 2.1 Site selection
- 2.2 Buying a seedling
- 2.3 Preparing the pit
- 2.4 Step by step planting process
- 2.5 Video: how to plant a pear
- 3.1 Cropping
- 3.2 Watering
- 3.3 Fertilization
- 3.4 Wintering
4 Diseases and pests of the variety
- 4.1 Table: prevention and treatment of diseases and pests of pear
- 4.2 Photo gallery: diseases and pests of pears in the photo
- 5 Harvesting
- 6 Variety reviews
Description of the Moskvichka variety
Medium-sized tree, up to 4 m. The trunk is dark gray, the branches are lighter, with a brown tint. The crown of the pear is conical. The leaves are dark green, oval, medium in size, with characteristic serrations along the edges and a bend along the central line. This variety grows well both near Moscow and in more southern regions.
Muscovite grows well in the suburbs and more southern regions
Moskvichka blooms late, in mid-late May. The flowers are white, shaped like cups. The tree gives harvest in September. Fruits are medium in size, from 110 to 140 g. They are greenish-yellow in color with white and rusty spots on the sides. The pulp is sweet, aromatic and very tasty. Each tree bears about 35–40 kg of fruit.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Muscovite is a very stable and reliable pear variety. We can say that this tree has only advantages, namely:
- frost resistance (withstands cold up to -30 o C);
- unpretentious care;
- immunity to common diseases (fruit rot, scab, fungal diseases);
- fruiting stability;
- early maturity - 3-4 years after disembarkation;
- good shelf life of fruits.
The disadvantages of this variety include only self-fertility: if you have a small garden plot, it is better to turn your attention to self-sufficient varieties that do not need pollinators.
Features of planting pears
Since Moskvichka is a self-fertile pear, first of all, you need to make sure that a suitable pollinator grows next to it. For this, Lyubimitsa Yakovleva, Bergamot Moscow, Elegant Efimovka, Bessemyanka, Lada, Marble are suitable. They bloom and bear fruit at about the same time, which makes pollination easier.
For the seedling, you need to choose a sunny, warm place, protected from drafts and at least 4 m away from high fences and buildings. Loam or sandy black soil is best suited. Sandy soil requires more intensive fertilization. The level of groundwater at the site is also important. If they approach the surface closer than 2.5 m, it is worth protecting the roots of the plant by first building an earthen hill for it 70 cm high and about 1 m in diameter, and drain the bottom of the planting pit well with large pebbles.
Choose a sunny spot to plant your pear so that the tree takes root quickly
Buying a seedling
Suitable for planting one-year and two-year seedlings. Be sure to inspect the trees before purchasing. They should have smooth, healthy bark, strong buds, and a good root system of 3-4 main tines without dry or rotten areas. Before planting, you need to tear off the leaves from the seedling.
Saplings should have smooth bark
You can plant a pear both in autumn, late September or early October, and in spring, in April at a stable warm temperature. The further north the garden plot is, the more careful you need to be with the autumn tree planting. It is important that it has time to take root and get stronger before the onset of frost. Whatever time you choose, the place for the pear must be prepared in the fall, at least 2 weeks before planting the plant:
- Mark the width of the hole 80–100 cm and remove the top 20–25 cm of fertile soil.
- Dig a hole 100–120 cm deep.
- Mix the top soil with 25-30 kg of compost (or other organic fertilizer), 300 g of superphosphate, 70 g of potassium sulfate and 1 kg of wood ash, and then put it in a slide on the bottom of the pit.
- Cover the pit with a waterproof material.
Step-by-step planting process
It is very important to plant a tree correctly, because the quality of its entire future life and development depends on it. This requires:
- The day before planting, immerse the seedling by a third in a 3% manganese solution for disinfection.
- 2–3 hours before planting, moisten the pear roots with a solution of manure and clay in a ratio of 1: 2 and let dry.
- Remove the waterproof film from the pit and install a support stake at a distance of 3-5 cm from the center.
- Carefully place the seedling in the center of the hole and spread the roots, making sure that the root collar of the plant is 4-6 cm above the final ground level.
- Fill the hole with earth layer by layer, ramming the soil and preventing the formation of voids.
- Tie the seedling to the support stake.
- Form a groove 6–8 cm deep along the edge of the planting pit and water the tree with 20–30 liters of water.
The trunk circle after planting a tree must be mulched
Video: how to plant a pear
The Muscovite is extremely unpretentious. It does not require either abundant watering or excessive preparation for the winter season. At the same time, proper care will help the tree to bring a bountiful harvest.
The Muscovite has a pronounced bole and does not need strong crown-forming pruning. The tree requires sanitization in the fall, at the end of September, at which all dry, diseased and damaged branches are removed. In spring, pruning consists only in thinning, that is, removing branches leading to thickening of the crown. It should be done in April before bud break. All operations must be done with a sharp, sterile instrument, without leaving hemp on the tree and cutting off the branches into a “ring” (near the base). Wounds should be immediately treated with garden varnish or covered with 2-3 coats of oil paint.
Wood cuts must be treated with garden varnish or paint
The pear does not like either drought or excessive watering. Whenever you wet the soil, consider the current weather conditions and the specifics of your site. A young tree of the first year of growth requires regular watering every 7-10 days with 10-15 liters of water. For seedlings 2–3 years old, the frequency can be kept up to 1 time in 2–3 weeks, and the volume of water can be increased to 20 liters at a time. An adult pear tree needs about 4–6 waterings per year.
Especially carefully it is necessary to moisten the ground before flowering and after the flowers have fallen - this affects the yield of the pear. The water norm for an adult tree is 35–50 liters. This volume can be divided into two parts: morning and evening. Also, do not skip the autumn moisture-charging watering in October, since a lack of moisture can dry out the bark of a tree, which will negatively affect its frost resistance. The consumption rate is about 60 liters for each 1 m 2.
It is optimal to water the pear using the sprinkling method
Watering a pear is best done by sprinkling, spraying water with a special device along the projection of the crown. But the usual methods are also suitable. To do this, dig 2–3 irrigation furrows 5–7 cm deep around the tree. The first irrigation furrow should be 50–60 cm from the trunk, and the next should have a step of 35–40 cm. Water should be poured into them, and then loosened tree circle and mulch the ground under the tree.
Fertilizers from the planting pit will feed the young tree for another 2-3 years. In the 4th year of growth, you need to start additional feeding of the plant. At the same time, mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil every year: 30–40 g of nitrate, 70–100 g of potassium salt and 300–500 g of superphosphate (in the spring before flowering or 2 times before and after flowering). Fertilizers are dissolved in water or sprinkled into the trunk circle. The latter method requires cloudy rainy weather. You must first dig up the ground under the tree.
An adult pear tree needs mineral fertilizing
The tree needs organic feeding once every 3 years. It is usually carried out in the fall when digging. Under an adult tree, you need to make 30-40 kg of compost or humus. You can replace them with a solution of chicken manure. To do this, use 1 kg of manure and 3 liters of water. The mixture is allowed to brew for 3-5 days and introduced into furrows 5-7 cm deep from two or four sides along the edge of the trunk circle.
Pear Moskvichka tolerates frosts well, but extra preparation will help the tree to revive more easily in spring, and will also get rid of pests. Preparation of pears for winter is carried out as follows:
- It is necessary to dig up the trunk circle, having previously cleared it of branches, weeds and fallen leaves.
- Clean the trunk of the pear with a metal brush to increase its frost resistance and remove possible pests.
- It is good to mulch the soil near the tree with sawdust or peat, laying a layer of 15–20 cm.
- Whitewash the trunk of the tree and 1/3 of the skeletal branches of the pear with a solution of lime, taking 2 kg of lime, 1 kg of powder clay and 300 g of copper sulfate. For young trees, this mixture is diluted with 15-18 liters of water, and for adults, 10 liters are used.
- Insulate the trunk with spruce branches or burlap.
- At the first frost, you can freeze the ice under the tree by spilling the earth from a hose with water.
Whitewashing protects the tree from frost and pests
Diseases and pests of the variety
Pear Moskvichka is resistant to most diseases, but it is affected by pests and some common diseases. It is worth knowing what these complications look like in order to help the tree in time.
Table: prevention and treatment of diseases and pests of pear
|Disease or pest||External signs of defeat||Treatment and prevention|
|Black cancer||Black lesions appear on the trunk and branches of the pear, which are similar to thermal burns.||This disease is extremely dangerous. If the tree is affected by more than 60%, it must be removed from the site and burned. When the plant can still be saved, you need to clean all the affected areas with an iron brush to a healthy tissue and rinse with a 2% solution of copper sulfate three times, repeating the procedure every 2-3 hours.|
|Leaf rust||The leaves of the plant are covered with a rusty coating on the back, and yellow-orange spots of irregular shape appear on the outside, which gradually darken.||
|Aphid||Young shoots and leaves of a pear are covered with small black or light green insects.||
|Pear moth||The fruits deteriorate from the inside, the pear pulp is pitted by the larvae, and the seed chamber is completely eaten.||
|Pear Copper||White bloom appears on the leaves of the pear, sticky white balls appear on the fruits, and the flower buds darken and deform.||
Photo gallery: diseases and pests of pears in the photo
Copperhead infects pear buds, and then spreads to fruits
The fruit moth attacks many garden crops: pears, apple trees, plums
Rust attacks the leaves of the tree, staining them in a characteristic way
Aphids usually settle on a tree in large colonies and are easy to spot.
Black cancer is extremely dangerous for all trees on the site
Pears of this variety are uneven, weighing on average reach 120 g and have a wide pear-shaped shape. Ripe fruit on the tree becomes yellowish, inside it is white with granulation near the seed chamber. Pears taste sweet and sour, rich, aromatic.
The average fruit weight of Moskvichka is 120 g
The harvest of this variety is stored for a long time: in the refrigerator for up to 100 days, and in room conditions for about 3 weeks. To increase the period, you can remove the pears from the tree while still green. The fruits will ripen during storage and gain the necessary sweetness.
Muscovites use pears both fresh (they are useful for digestion and immunity) and processed, making compotes, preserves, jams, candied fruits from them. Do not just freeze the fruits, as this will cause them to lose their taste.
You can make delicious and healthy candied fruits from pears
Pay attention to the Moskvichka pear if you want to diversify the autumn harvest with tasty and sweet fruits. This variety does not require intensive care and easily tolerates frosty winters.
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