Table of contents:
- Valentine cabbage: characteristics and agricultural techniques of the most popular late variety
- The history of the creation of the variety
- Description of the characteristics of cabbage Valentine F1
- Features of planting and growing vegetables
- Caring for cabbage beds
- Possible diseases and pests
- Collection and storage of heads
- Reviews of vegetable growers about the Valentine F1 variety
Video: Valentine Cabbage: Characteristic Of The Variety, Rules Of Growing And Care + Photo
Valentine cabbage: characteristics and agricultural techniques of the most popular late variety
Cabbage has been known to people for thousands of years. At any time of the year, this vegetable is on the menu of most people. Early ripening varieties already in May delight salad lovers with juicy, sweet, crunchy leaves. But mid-season and late varieties are more appreciated for their ability to be stored all winter and not deteriorate, improving the taste and set of vitamins over time. One of the best representatives of late-ripening cabbage varieties, according to the numerous characteristics of gardeners, is Valentina F1.
- 1 History of the creation of the variety
2 Description of the characteristics of cabbage Valentine F1
2.1 Table: the advantages and disadvantages of Valentine's cabbage F1
3 Features of planting and growing vegetables
- 3.1 Choosing a place for cabbage beds
3.2 Soil preparation
3.2.1 Video: soil preparation for sowing cabbage
- 3.3 Preparation of planting material
- 3.4 Sowing cabbage and growing seedlings
- 3.5 Planting seedlings
4 Caring for a cabbage bed
- 4.1 Video: some tricks of growing cabbage
4.2.1 Table: dressings for cabbage varieties Valentine F1
- 4.3 Some features of caring for Valentine F1 cabbage
5 Potential diseases and pests
5.1 Table: Cabbage diseases Valentine F1
5.1.1 Photo Gallery: Cabbage Diseases
5.2 Table: cabbage pests
- 5.2.1 Photo Gallery: Insects on Cabbage
- 5.2.2 Video: fighting gnats and slugs, and caring for cabbage
- 6 Collection and storage of heads
- 7 Reviews of vegetable growers about the Valentine F1 variety
The history of the creation of the variety
White cabbage Valentina F1 - a hybrid created at the Moscow breeding station. N. Timofeeva. In 2004, this variety was included in the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation in all regions of the country where there is agriculture. Valentina F1 has no analogues abroad for a number of properties and is one of the best representatives of domestic selection.
Valentine's cabbage F1 tastes better the longer it is stored
Description of the characteristics of cabbage Valentine F1
The variety is very late, from germination to full ripening takes from 140 to 180 days. Matures to stable frosts. Tolerates short-term freezing in case of sudden cold snap. Thawing does not harm further storage. Suitable for both hobbyist and farm cultivation. Valentina's head of cabbage is dense, flat-oval. Covered with dark green leaves with a bluish waxy coating. Weight 3-5 kg, average - 3.8 kg. The forks are white on the cut. It can be stored for up to 10 months.Cabbage initially has a bitter taste that disappears completely during storage. The head of cabbage can be consumed after aging in storage for at least three months. During this time, it becomes tender, juicy and sweet, without coarse veins. The inner stalk of the head is short. Valentina is genetically resistant to fusarium wilt.
Table: Advantages and Disadvantages of Valentina F1 Cabbage
|Yield||The need to buy Valentine F1 cabbage seeds annually, since the seeds of the hybrids do not repeat the maternal properties|
|Long shelf life (up to 10 months)||Valentines F1 cabbage must not be fermented immediately after harvest. For fermentation, it must be kept in the cellar for at least three months for the disappearance of bitterness|
|Excellent taste, no hard inclusions in the leaves|
|Fusarium wilt resistance|
Features of planting and growing vegetables
It is important to choose the right place for growing cabbage. This culture is very susceptible to external conditions, so you should carefully read all the nuances of planting the selected vegetable.
Valentine F1 cabbage becomes sweet and juicy after several months of storage
Choosing a place for cabbage beds
When choosing a place for cabbage beds, you need to consider several factors:
- Illumination: cabbage does not like shade, the sun should illuminate the plant throughout the day;
- Crop rotation: you cannot plant cabbage in one place for several years in a row.
Cabbage grows well on loose, moist, fertile and neutral or slightly alkaline soil. Therefore, the beds must be prepared in advance. If the soil is heavy and acidic, 1-2 cups of ordinary chalk or dolomite flour per 1 m 2 are added for digging. Add over a bucket of humus or compost. Fresh manure cannot be applied. The garden bed is then dug on a shovel bayonet, removing weed roots and pest larvae. Then it is covered with a dark agrospan before planting seeds or seedlings. The soil in the greenhouse is prepared according to the same rules, adding also furnace ash at the rate of 1 liter per 1 m 2.
Video: soil preparation for sowing cabbage
Preparation of planting material
If the seeds are not coated with disinfectants and nutrients by the manufacturer, they must be disinfected. For grains of this was placed in a gauze bag and heated in a hot (53 to C) water for 10-15 minutes. This is best done in a thermos. After this procedure, the seeds are dried so that they do not stick together, and are sown immediately.
Sowing cabbage and growing seedlings
In a warm room, the seeds will sprout much faster, but the seedlings will immediately begin to stretch out, so cabbage seedlings are not grown in a warm place. It is best when the plants develop 15-18 about C. Therefore, it is recommended to sow seeds in an unheated greenhouse or under cover in early to mid April or early May, depending on the region. The grains are arranged in rows. The distance between plants is 1.5–2 cm. The same gaps are left between the grooves. The sowing depth is 1–1.5 cm.
As soon as the first true leaf begins to develop in the seedlings, the plants are seated in separate containers or dive in the garden bed, but with a distance of 10–20 cm between them. It is recommended to shorten the roots by a third of their length. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place after 40–45 days, when the cabbage has at least 4–6 leaves.
Cabbage seedlings at the age of 40-45 days are ready for transplanting
Cabbage seedlings are planted according to a certain scheme, given that the plants need enough light and space. Therefore, the distances between plants in late cabbage are made larger than in early and medium late cabbage. The holes are dug 70 cm apart. 70 cm is also left between the rows.
Planting is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening, so that the seedlings do not fade in the sun, and acclimatize a little overnight. When planting in the hole, add 2 tablespoons of ash and a handful of humus.
- Seedlings are carefully removed from the container in which they grew, being careful not to damage the roots.
- Place in the hole so that the roots do not bend up.
- The first true leaves fall asleep, and the cotyledons remain in the ground. You do not need to delete them.
- A small hole is formed around each seedling with your hands.
- Water abundantly.
Seedlings are buried to the first true leaves and watered abundantly
With seeds, cabbage Valentina F1 is planted on the garden bed in the second half of May under a cover with non-woven material, and in frost they are also covered from above with a film. The seeds are buried in the soil by 1.5–2 cm. 2-3 grains are placed in one hole. After germination, 1 the strongest plant is left, the rest are carefully cut with scissors so as not to damage the roots of the remaining seedling.
Caring for cabbage beds
Cabbage care includes:
- loosening the soil and hilling,
The soil around the growing cabbage must be loosened and free of weeds. To strengthen the root system, it is useful to huddle the plants by shoveling the soil along the lower leaves. To prevent a crust from forming, sprinkle cabbage beds with chopped mowed grass. This mulch not only protects the soil from drying out, but also provides additional nutrition to the plants.
Video: some tricks for growing cabbage
Cabbage is a moisture-loving plant. Therefore, it needs to be watered often, in the heat every day, especially during the period of leaf growth and laying of heads. Water for irrigation should be clean and cool, but not lower than 12 o C. Sprinkling cabbage is best suited. Especially in hot weather, which this plant does not tolerate well. Already at temperatures above 25 to C in cabbage is stopped tying of head. A cool shower during hot times of the day will help solve this problem. But you cannot use sprinkling while tying the fork. Water constantly getting between the leaves can cause various rot. Stagnation of water at the roots is also not recommended. The soil should be moist but loose. After tying and pouring a fork, watering should be limited, but not stopped if the weather is dry.
Table: dressings for cabbage varieties Valentine F1
|Regularity||Nutrient composition in proportion to water|
|Weekly, immediately after watering, alternating formulations||Organic feed:
|Once every two weeks, between organic feedings||Mineral dressing:
Some features of caring for Valentine F1 cabbage
- So that the heads of cabbage do not crack from waterlogging, you need to weaken the flow of juices from the roots to the leaves of the fork. To do this, the roots are chopped up with a shovel or the head of cabbage is slightly rolled in the ground, until the characteristic crunch of burst roots;
- The lower leaves of the cabbage are not cut off, only yellowed, dried ones are removed, which fall off themselves;
- To prevent the formation of layers of dry or wet darkened leaves, the so-called cuffs, inside the fork, it is impossible to separate the head of cabbage from the roots during harvesting during freezing, when the leaves are frozen. You need to wait until it warms or dig up the plant with roots and place it in a cool place until the head of cabbage has completely thawed.
Possible diseases and pests
Despite the fact that the Valentina F1 variety is very resistant to fusarium wilt, it is still susceptible to attack by pests and diseases, like any other crop.
Table: Cabbage diseases Valentine F1
|Disease||Symptoms||Prevention and treatment|
|Keela cabbage||The roots of the plant are deformed, covered with growths, and cease to perform their function. The plant dies||
|Vascular bacteriosis||The leaves are first covered with yellow spots, and then dry out and turn black||Carry out pre-sowing seed treatment: warming up in hot (53 ° C) water for 15–20 minutes|
|Powdery mildew||Gray, flour-like coating on the back of the leaf. From above, the sheet becomes covered with yellow spots and dries||Treat the soil before planting plants with Fitosporin M (2 tablespoons of concentrate per 10 liters of water)|
|Alternaria or black spot||Dark round spots with concentric circles inside on the leaves, which soon turn black. Inside, the head of cabbage is also affected during storage.||
|Gray rot||It manifests itself at the end of summer with high humidity. On the petioles of the lower leaves of cabbage, at the point of attachment to the stalk, rotting spots with an unpleasant odor appear, spreading to the entire head of cabbage. It manifests itself during storage, especially if it is warm and damp in the basement or cellar|
|Rhizoctonia||Rot appearing at the place of attachment of the head of cabbage spreads to the stump, which deteriorates during storage. Gradually, the entire head of cabbage rots from the inside|
Photo gallery: cabbage diseases
With Alternaria disease, spots with conical circles inside are formed on the leaves
Vascular bacteriosis affects heads of cabbage at high temperatures and high humidity
Leaves infected with powdery mildew dry out quickly
Heads of cabbage affected by Rhizoctonia cannot be saved
Keel-infested roots cannot feed the plant
Gray rot can destroy all crops
Valentina F1 cabbage is quite resistant to all types of pathogens. If you adhere to the rules when growing and take preventive measures, it will not hurt.
Table: cabbage pests
|Pest||Damage caused||Control measures|
|Cabbage aphid||It settles in colonies on leaves and sucks juices from the plant. The head of cabbage does not form, the plant dies||
|Cruciferous flea||Jumping bugs that feed on cabbage leaves, gnawing small holes in them.|
|Cabbage white||A butterfly caterpillar that feeds on green cabbage leaves. Causes irreparable damage to plants|
|Cabbage moth||Caterpillars of this inconspicuous butterfly gnaw holes in cabbage leaves, from which the heads of cabbage quickly begin to deteriorate and are not able to be stored normally|
|Caterpillar of cabbage scoop||Spoils the heads of cabbage, gnawing holes in them and clogging them with excrement|
|Cabbage fly||Lays eggs in the soil next to the stem. The hatched larvae penetrate it, gnaw through the passages and destroy the plant|
|Slugs||They feed on green leaves of plants, are active at night, can destroy the entire crop||
Photo gallery: insects on cabbage
Moth cabbage scoop
The white butterfly looks completely harmless, unlike its caterpillars
The clutch of white butterfly eggs is located on the back of the cabbage leaf
The caterpillar of the whitebird butterfly emits a sticky poisonous substance, thanks to which it is very difficult to shake it off the plant
Inconspicuous gray butterfly - cabbage moth
The larva of the cabbage moth gnaws oval holes in the leaves
The caterpillars of the cabbage scoop gnaw holes in the heads of cabbage and pollute the entire space with their excrement
Cruciferous fleas transform cabbage leaves into lace
Cabbage fly larvae on the roots of the plant
Cabbage fly larvae settle at the root collar of the plant and bite into the stem, making spiral passages in it
Cabbage leaves, inhabited by a colony of aphids, curl, the plant dies
Slugs, gnawing holes in heads of cabbage, make them completely unusable
Video: fighting gnats and slugs, as well as caring for cabbage
Collection and storage of heads
The Valentine F1 cabbage is harvested from mid-October until the start of regular frosts. Although small frosts up to -7 o C are not terrible for Valentine. At this time, there are many bitter substances in it. It is undesirable to use heads of cabbage for food right away. The bitterness will disappear in two or three months. It will be possible to ferment this cabbage only in January. Before that, it is removed to the cellar or basement for storage. To do this, leave 2-3 cover leaves on the heads of cabbage and dig up the cabbage with the root. Store in a cellar, hanging by the rhizome. So that the cabbage does not spoil, sprinkle with chalk. The heads of cabbage should not touch each other during storage. During the winter, they need to be examined several times, choosing the spoiled ones. Cabbage is stored at temperatures from zero to two degrees Celsius.
Valentine's cabbage F1 suspended by the root can be stored until next summer
Reviews of vegetable growers about the Valentine F1 variety
Late cabbage variety Valentina F1 quickly won a place of honor among the representatives of its group. Gardeners who tested the variety noted the remarkable ability of this cabbage not only to be stored for a long time, but also to preserve and improve its taste every month. Among the varieties recommended for novice vegetable growers for growing, experienced vegetable growers will definitely mention F1 Valentina as one of the best.
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