Table of contents:

Cherry Kharitonovskaya: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Cherry Kharitonovskaya: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews

Video: Cherry Kharitonovskaya: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Java Burn review | What is Java Burn? | can you lose weight by just drinking coffee 2023, February
Anonim

Cherry Kharitonovskaya - fruitful and large-fruited

kharitonovskaya cherry
kharitonovskaya cherry

The cherry orchard is the pride of any summer resident. In addition to rich harvests, every year the cherry transforms the backyard with its snow-white bloom. More than 150 varieties have been bred, one of the most productive is Kharitonovskaya cherry.

Content

  • 1 Description of cherry variety
  • 2 Advantages and disadvantages of Kharitonovskaya
  • 3 Correct tree planting

    • 3.1 Boarding time
    • 3.2 Choosing a place
    • 3.3 Selection of seedlings
    • 3.4 Step by step process
  • 4 Care Secrets

    • 4.1 Watering
    • 4.2 How to feed cherries
    • 4.3 Care of the trunk circle
    • 4.4 Cropping
    • 4.5 Preparing for winter
  • 5 Diseases and pests

    • 5.1 Cherry diseases - table
    • 5.2 Cherry pests - table
    • 5.3 Pests - photo gallery
  • 6 Harvesting
  • 7 Reviews

Cherry variety description

Cherry tree is medium-sized 2.5 - 3.5 m tall with a spreading crown. This feature should be taken into account when planting a cherry orchard, leaving a sufficient distance between the seedlings. Shoots are straight, brownish. The leaves are large, dark green, with jagged edges. The flowers are white. Fruiting occurs at the 4th year of planting, the ovaries are formed on bouquet branches and last year's shoots.

Cherry varieties Kharitonovskaya
Cherry varieties Kharitonovskaya

Cherry Kharitonovskaya is distinguished by its yield - up to 25 kg of fruits can be obtained from a tree

Fruits are large, round, weighing 5 g, dark red. The skin is medium, without pubescence. The pulp is orange, dense. The berries are sweet and sour, the tasting score is 4.75 points. The content of sugars in fruits is 6.8%, acids - 1.48%, ascorbic acid - 11.0 mg / 100g. Transportability is average. A variety of universal use. The peduncle is easily detached from the branch and firmly attached to the bone. A characteristic feature of Kharitonovskaya cherry is a large stone, which is easily separated from the pulp.

The variety is partially self-fertile; to increase productivity, pollinator trees should be planted nearby: cherries Lyubskaya, Zhukovskaya, Vladimirskaya.

Cherry tree
Cherry tree

Cherry Kharitonovskaya - medium-sized tree with a spreading crown

Advantages and disadvantages of Kharitonovskaya

Gardeners who grow Kharitonovskaya cherry on the site give only positive feedback. The advantages of the variety:

  • stable high yield (up to 25 kg per tree);
  • resistance to shedding berries;
  • moderate growth;
  • undemanding to growing conditions;
  • immunity to coccomycosis;
  • excellent taste.

The disadvantages include the average winter hardiness of flowers and buds; a large bone.

Kharitonovskaya cherry fruits
Kharitonovskaya cherry fruits

Cherry variety Kharitonovskaya - large-fruited, berry weight - 5 g

Correct tree planting

The longevity of the trees and the abundance of the harvest mainly depend on the quality of the seedlings and the plot allocated for the cherry orchard.

Boarding time

The best time for planting in the central part of Russia is early spring, before the buds swell. Saplings with an open root system, planted at a different time, may not take root and die. In southern regions with hot climates, it can be planted in spring. Plants in containers can be planted from spring to autumn.

Choosing a place

For Kharitonovskaya cherry it is necessary to choose a place illuminated by the sun throughout the day, protected from the winds by a fence, outbuildings. The culture prefers to grow on moisture and breathable soil, clay or sandy places are not suitable for it. Cherry does not tolerate swampy areas, therefore, they choose elevated places with a groundwater level of at least 2 m. The plot for a cherry orchard is selected spacious so that there is enough space for pollinating trees, they do not shade each other and do not intertwine with branches. Too close proximity will negatively affect the development of the tree and its yield.

Best place for cherries
Best place for cherries

Cherry Kharitonovskaya loves space

Selection of seedlings

Seedlings must be purchased from specialized shopping centers or nurseries. They must have certificates indicating the variety, age. Grafted trees should be chosen. At the same time, pollinating plants are acquired, at least two. A 1-2-year-old seedling should have developed roots with light tips, without damage, an even stem, without gum drips and peeling of the bark, flexible branches. On the stem 5–15 cm from the root collar, there should be a noticeable place of inoculation - a slight thickening.

Plants with a closed root system are taken out of the packaging and the earthen lump is examined: it should be densely entwined with roots and not crumble. Saplings purchased in late autumn are added dropwise until spring. In a shady place in the garden, they dig an elongated hole 35 cm deep.One of the walls is made inclined at 45 °. On this side, seedlings are placed, roots and 1/3 of the trunk are covered with earth. Watered abundantly and insulated with straw. To protect it from rodents, the seedling is covered with spruce branches. In severe frosts, buried plants are covered with snow. Dig them out just before planting.

Cherry seedlings
Cherry seedlings

Cherry seedlings should have flexible shoots, leaves without spots

A seedling with a closed root system is spilled with water and allowed to stand for 5-10 minutes. The lump will be saturated with moisture and will not crumble when removed from the package. Such a tree is planted together with an earthen clod.

Step by step process

The wide crown of Kharitonovskaya requires space, so planting pits are placed every 4–5 m. Nearby, 5 m holes are prepared for pollinating trees.

  1. Ash (500 g), humus (10 kg) and superphosphate (40 g) are introduced into the pit.

    Landing pits
    Landing pits

    Landing pits are prepared in advance

  2. At the bottom, a mound of fertile soil is poured.
  3. A peg 80 m high is placed in the pit on the side.
  4. A seedling is placed in the center of this site, the roots are well straightened. Plants from the container are planted with the ground.

    Seedling roots
    Seedling roots

    The roots of the seedling are well spread when planting

  5. They fall asleep with fertile soil, shaking the plant so that no voids remain, tamp it.

    Soil compaction
    Soil compaction

    The soil around the seedling is compacted

  6. The root collar should be 5 cm above the soil level.
  7. A small watering groove is formed around the trunk, into which 2 buckets of water are introduced and allowed to soak.
  8. The seedling is loosely tied to the support.

    Sapling support
    Sapling support

    After planting, the seedling is loosely tied to the support

  9. The soil is mulched with 5 cm thick straw.

Care secrets

The variety is not capricious. But it will bear fruit abundantly and annually only with proper care: keeping the soil clean and mulching, watering as needed, timely pruning of root shoots and proper preparation for the winter cold. It is also important to choose the right neighbors. Grows well next to strawberries, raspberries, grapes, gladioli, roses. But apple trees, carrots, lilies, daffodils, irises are best planted elsewhere in the garden.

Watering

The variety is drought-resistant, does not tolerate flooding. Moisten the wood as needed. The trees planted in spring are watered at first once every 5-7 days, 20 liters each. In autumn, 1-2 waterings are enough. Then young seedlings in the year of planting are moistened once a month (1 bucket). For adult plants, the norm is 3 buckets three times per season. Pre-winter watering is carried out in October. After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched.

How to feed cherries

Kharitonovka is demanding on soil fertility, but immediately after planting, the cherry practically does not need additional fertilizing. Its root system is very powerful and is able to independently provide the tree with the necessary amount of nutrients introduced during planting. For the first 4 years, the plant is gaining growth and needs nitrogen. Urea (30 g per 1 sq. M) is distributed along the trunk circle and lightly sprinkled with earth. An excellent organic fertilizer is manure. It is applied every 2 years (10 kg per tree) and deepened by 10 cm. With the onset of fruiting, organic matter and minerals are added annually: 10 kg of manure, 20 g of superphosphate or 200 g of ash per 1 sq. m.

Fertilizers for cherries
Fertilizers for cherries

Cherry trees are harvested annually

Nitrogen is used exclusively in spring. Organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are best fed in the fall. From the age of 6, the amount of feeding is increased by 30%. Once every 5 years, to reduce acidity, the soil is limed with slaked lime, calcium carbonate during autumn digging.

Barrel circle care

The soil under the crown of the cherry tree should be weeded, loosened after watering and rains, and be sure to mulch. A layer of hay, sawdust prevents moisture from evaporating quickly and prevents weeds from growing. In autumn, the trunk circle is mulched with rotted manure. Cherry roots, especially young ones, will be reliably protected from freezing during frosts, and will receive additional nutrition by spring.

Cherry Kharitonovskaya is prone to overgrowth, which depletes the tree. The root growth must be cut off at the very ground.

Barrel circle
Barrel circle

The trunk circle must be loosened for air access to the roots

Pruning

Correct pruning contributes not only to the formation of a beautiful crown, but also to an increase in yield, an increase in the mass of fruits, and also relieves the tree of diseases. At the same time, cherry rejuvenation occurs. When planting, the top of a young seedling is cut off at a height of 80 cm, which stimulates the appearance of lateral shoots. Cherry pruning is carried out annually before bud break. If it was not possible to cut the plant in time, the work is postponed until next spring. Kharitonovskaya is prone to growing in breadth, therefore, shoots are completely removed, thickening the spherical crown, drooping branches and growing inward. Slices are disinfected with pitch. In the second year, the regrown shoots are cut by 1/3. The lower shoots are removed completely. The following spring, last year's branches are shortened, lateral growths are cut. Be sure to cut off diseased branches, cover the cuts.Do not remove too many branches from old cherries at once. Cherry quickly grows overgrown with root shoots, it must be cut, otherwise the yield will significantly decrease. In the fall, dry and damaged branches are removed.

Cherry pruning scheme
Cherry pruning scheme

Formative pruning is carried out in early spring

Preparing for winter

Cherry Kharitonovskaya is sensitive to cold, with severe frosts, flower buds can freeze, then you should not expect rich harvests. Therefore, it is necessary to take care in advance of protecting the plant from frost and rodents, which especially damage young plantings. Before wintering, they carry out sanitary pruning, dig up, fertilize, water and mulch the soil, whitewash the trunks. Before the onset of cold weather, trees, especially young trees, can be sprayed with Epin-extra stimulant, which significantly increases the cherry's resistance to adverse weather conditions. At the end of October, when the weather is cool, the tree trunk is covered with burlap or other material that allows water and air to pass through well. For protection from mice and hares, a plastic net that is wrapped around the tree is suitable.

Protecting trees from rodents
Protecting trees from rodents

From rodents, tree trunks are tied with a net

Diseases and pests

The variety is resistant to coccomycosis, rarely affected by fruit rot. The preventive measures taken greatly reduce the risk of developing an infection or parasite. Covering branches with berries with nets will help protect cherries from starlings, sparrows and tits.

Cherry diseases - table

Diseases Manifestations Preventive measures Treatment
Cherry rust On the leaves, reddish swellings appear, resembling rust. Burn fallen leaves. They are treated with Hom (40g / 5 l) before and after flowering.

Spray with 1% Bordeaux mixture after harvesting.

Gum therapy Amber streaks appear on the trunk. Flowing out of cracks in the bark, the thick liquid quickly hardens. Gum removal occurs when the bark is injured or lack of calcium - they are fed with calcium chloride. The cleaned wounds are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, covered with pitch.
Clasterosporium disease Holes form on the leaves. The pulp of the berries dries up. Do not plant cherries near diseased plants.
  1. The affected branches are cut.
  2. Spray with 1% copper sulfate in early spring.
  3. Treat with 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 g / 1 l) during budding, after flowering and 2 weeks after flowering.

Cherry disease - photo gallery

Gum therapy
Gum therapy

Gum flow occurs when the cortex is injured

Cherry clasterosporium disease
Cherry clasterosporium disease

When affected by clasterosporium, the pulp of the berries dries up, the leaves become perforated

Cherry rust
Cherry rust

Rust is a dangerous disease that leads to lower yields

Cherry pests - table

Pest Signs Prevention Control measures
Cherry sawfly Caterpillars damage ovaries, fruits, the tree looks dried out.
  1. Shake off adult insects onto film.
  2. Spray in spring with chamomile infusion three times with an interval of 7 days (pour 800 g of dried flowers with 10 liters of water, leave for 24 hours, add 30 g of laundry soap, dilute with 15 liters of water).
Trees are treated with Novaktion, Fufanon before and after flowering.
Spider mite Arachnids settle on the underside of the leaf and envelop the plants with thin cobwebs. They feed on plant juices. To clear the garden from fallen leaves, remove old branches. They are treated before and after flowering with Decis, Nitrofen, BI-58 (10 ml / 10 l), Metaphos.
Cherry fly Damage to berries by worms. Remove the carrion, dig up the ground under the trees in the fall. After flowering, the ovaries are sprayed with insecticides to destroy the eggs. The treatment is carried out three times after 7 days.
Aphid Leaves, especially young ones, are twisted and covered with small insects. Remove basal vegetation.
  1. With small amounts of parasites, they are harvested by hand.
  2. The tops of the branches covered with aphids are cut off.
  3. The ends of the branches are treated with soapy water (60 g per 10 l).
  4. Spray with Actellic (20 ml per 20 l).
Cherry weevil The beetles feed on cherry buds, young foliage and flowers, and lay eggs in fruits. Spoiled berries fall off.

Shake off bugs during bud break and destroy. Dig up the soil, collect damaged carrion. Apply infusions of tobacco, aconite before and after flowering

Spray with Fufanon (10 g / 10 L), Intavir (1 tablet / 10 L), Kinmix (2.5 ml / 10 L) after flowering.
Chafer The beetle damage the root system of fruit trees, young seedlings often die. Spill the soil in the spring with a solution of ammonia (1 / 2 tbsp. L / 10 l).
  1. The larvae are collected and destroyed by digging.
  2. They put glue traps on beetles.
  3. The tree is treated with Aktara, Earthman before and after flowering.
Cherry moth The pest infects buds, leaves and ovaries. The yield decreases. Loosen the ground in early summer to destroy the caterpillars. When the kidneys swell, spray with 0.1% Aktara.

Pests - photo gallery

Cherry sawfly
Cherry sawfly

Cherry sawfly damages leaves and ovaries

Spider mite
Spider mite

Spider mite feeds on plant juices

Cherry fly larva
Cherry fly larva

Cherry fly larvae damage fruits

Cherry aphid
Cherry aphid

Cherry aphid - a carrier of diseases

Cherry weevil
Cherry weevil

Fruits spoiled by a cherry weevil fall

Chafer
Chafer

May beetle damages the root system of trees, especially young ones

Cherry moth caterpillar
Cherry moth caterpillar

The cherry moth caterpillar can kill most of the crop

Against parasites, their natural enemies are used - predatory insects: ladybugs, ground beetle, hoverfly, golden-eyed, and riders. They attract beneficial insects by planting flowering plants: tansy, marigolds, mint, calendula. They clean the garden of caterpillars, aphids and insectivorous birds: titmouses, flycatchers, wagtails. To attract birds, they build feeders, part of the cherries, viburnum, rowan berries are left for feeding the birds.

Harvesting

The variety is mid-season, ripening begins in the tenths of July and lasts until mid-August. The berries are large, weighing 5 g, do not crumble. One tree gives up to 25 kg of berries. Fruits for transportation are removed with a stalk. In the refrigerator, fresh berries do not spoil for about a week. Cherries are also frozen, dried, dried, while they do not lose their beneficial properties. Berries are used to prepare compotes, confiture, marmalade, preserves, tinctures, and add to ice cream and desserts. Cherry is a medicinal berry. It contains many vitamins and microelements that increase the defenses of the human body, have a beneficial effect on the heart, nervous system, intestines, liver and kidneys, and improve vision. Its juice and pulp are used in cosmetology for skin and hair care. Fragrant cherry leaves are used to prepare medicinal infusions and homemade pickles.

Berry variety Kharitonovskaya
Berry variety Kharitonovskaya

The dense pulp of Kharitonovskaya allows you to transport fruits over long distances

Reviews

The cultivar's resistance to coccomycosis, the most common disease that harms the cherry orchard, favorably distinguishes the Kharitonovskaya cherry among other species. This allows you to minimize the use of chemicals in your personal plot. This creates favorable conditions for pollinating insects, which means it helps to increase yields. Attracts gardeners and the excellent taste of berries.

Popular by topic