Table of contents:
- Agricultural methods of successful cultivation of raspberry varieties Patricia
- Raspberry variety Patricia: description with photo
- Landing features
- Table: diseases and pests of raspberry Patricia
- Harvesting and processing
- Reviews of gardeners about raspberries Patricia
Video: Raspberry Patricia: Description And Characteristics Of The Variety, Advantages And Disadvantages, Planting And Care Features With Photos And Reviews
Agricultural methods of successful cultivation of raspberry varieties Patricia
Patricia is a time-tested variety and a whole generation of gardeners. This large-fruited raspberry was bred 30 years ago in Moscow by V.V.Kichina. The presence of the A10 gene makes Patricia unattractive for the raspberry aphid - the carrier of viruses of spotting, leaf mottling, necrosis and yellow reticulation. But the variety is susceptible to late blight. With the usual agricultural technology for raspberries, the yield is 4–5 kg per bush.
1 Variety of raspberries Patricia: description with photo
1.1 Table: advantages and disadvantages
2 Landing features
- 2.1 Boarding times and site selection
2.2 Site preparation, how to make a trench on sandy soil and a bed on clay
2.2.1 Video: raspberry trench
- 2.3 Selecting a seedling
2.4 Scheme and technology of landing
2.4.1 Video: planting raspberries with fertilization in the planting pit
3.1 Pruning and shaping the bush
3.1.1 Video: fruiting after double pruning
3.2 Watering raspberries
3.2.1 Video: how to water raspberries
- 3.3 Table: Fertilizers for raspberries
3.4 Shelter for the winter
3.4.1 Video: how to bend raspberries with boards
4 Table: diseases and pests of raspberry Patricia
4.1 Photo Gallery: Pests and Diseases Patricia May Suffer
5 Harvesting and processing
5.1 Video: the original idea of storing grated raspberries in the freezer
- 6 Reviews of gardeners about raspberries Patricia
Raspberry variety Patricia: description with photo
The Patrician bush is tall (1.8 m) and spreading. Every year 6-10 replacement shoots and up to 8 root suckers grow. The big advantage is that there are no thorns, which makes care and harvesting easier. The variety is mid-season, not remontant. The first berries ripen in early July, the main fruiting ends in early August, but some berries can be found on the bushes later.
The shoots of Patricia are without thorns, the berries are large, pubescent
The fruits are large, the maximum size is 4–5 cm in length and weighing up to 14 g, there are also small ones - from 4 g. The shape of the berries is unusual, similar to strawberries, due to the tendency to deformation, double fruits are often found. Some gardeners consider this a disadvantage, others a unique feature. The drupes in the berry are firmly attached, the seeds are small. Keeping quality and transportability is average: the berries do not crumple during collection, but they are not stored for long. Good for the market only if collected in the morning and sold in the evening. The taste is dessert, with a bright raspberry aroma, according to a five-point system, it is estimated at 4.6.
Table: advantages and disadvantages
|Large, interestingly shaped berries, tasty and aromatic||Tendency to deform berries|
|Very high productivity, one of the highest yielding varieties||Susceptible to late blight, prevention is required|
|No thorns||Gives growth|
|Ripe berries do not crumble for a long time||Requires a garter to the trellis|
|Without a garter, it tolerates frosts down to -30 ⁰C for the winter||Overripe berries remain on the bushes and are affected by gray rot|
|Resistant to viral diseases, as well as fungal: anthracnose, didimelle, botrytis|
Boarding times and seat selection
Raspberries are a very tenacious crop that tends to turn into a weed. You can plant it, especially from your own raspberry tree, all season. If you buy an expensive seedling and doubt its viability, then, of course, it is better to adhere to the rules of high agricultural technology, in our case, observe the terms. In the South of Russia there is a short spring, hot summer, which means that the purchase should be postponed until autumn. In regions with warm rainy summers and short cold autumn, the best time to plant any seedlings is spring. In the middle lane, raspberries are broken in both spring and autumn.
If, by tradition, you choose a place under the fence, where the snow does not melt for a long time, and then the earth does not dry out in any way, then you will not get a good harvest even from the most productive variety, such as Patricia. Raspberry bushes should be illuminated by the sun, and moisture and air should be supplied to the roots. Always damp soil is favorable conditions for fungal diseases. Patricia is susceptible to late blight and gray rot, which means that dampness is contraindicated for her. An ideal case - the bushes warm up in the morning from one side, in the evening - from the other, that is, they are oriented from north to south.
Stepping back a couple of meters from the fence, you will provide the raspberries with good lighting and ventilation.
When choosing a sunny place for raspberries without stagnant rain and melt water, consider the neighborhood. There should be no strawberries nearby (a weevil will come from it) and potatoes, often suffering from late blight. The raspberry itself should not oppress nearby growing crops. This can be avoided if slate sheets are dug around the perimeter of the raspberry tree or the bushes are planted in cut and dug barrels.
Site preparation, how to make a trench on sandy soil and a bed on clay
Any kind of raspberry grows well on light loam. One of the ways to prepare such soil: to dig up the area, after sprinkling 1-2 buckets of humus or compost and 2 glasses of ash per 1 m². If there is little organic matter, you can add it when planting in the hole. On sandy and clayey soils, everything is more difficult. Water and fertilizers dissolved in it do not stay in the sand, raspberries suffer without moisture and nutrition. On clayey, water spreads over the surface, the roots do not breathe and also do not receive vital elements.
To grow Patricia's claimed crop on sandy soil, you have to dig a trench. The essence of this event is to create a layer for raspberries that will absorb water and rot. Thus, a moist and nourishing cushion will be found under the roots. A trench is made in the fall, when there are many materials on the site for filling it.
How to make a raspberry trench:
- Parameters: depth 45–50 cm, width - 60 cm, length depends on the number of seedlings. If you make several trenches, then leave a distance between them - 150 cm. Set aside the top layer (20-30 cm) separately, this land will be needed to prepare a nutritious soil mixture.
- At the bottom, throw branches from trees and shrubs, on top of them - tops, mowed grass, weeds, fallen leaves. Fill half of the trench with this material.
- Mix the topsoil 1: 1 with humus or compost, add 2 cups of ash for each running meter.
- Fill the trench to the top with the resulting mixture.
Video: raspberry trench
On clay soil, a raised breast will help. It should rise only 15–20 cm above the soil, but this is enough for the root system to breathe, feed and develop. If you make it higher, then the bed will quickly erode, and the roots will dry.
Making a bed for raspberries:
- Dig a trench 30 cm deep and 60 cm wide.
- Make the sides of planks or slate so that they rise 20-25 cm above the soil.
- Fill in the same way as a trench on a sandy ground, up to half with branches and tops.
- In the soil mixture, in addition to humus and ash, add a bucket of peat or 0.5 buckets of sand per 1 running meter.
- Fill the breast with this mixture, leaving the sides 5-10 cm high.
Raspberries are planted in the beds
The quality of a raspberry seedling is assessed by the root. It is from it that the replacement shoots will grow and give the first harvest. But you also need to inspect the existing escape.
Signs of a healthy and promising seedling:
- The shoot is cut off at a height of up to 30 cm, has no signs of disease: purple, red, brown, black spots.
- The main root is branched, flexible, not chopped off, without rotten areas (red, crumble).
- There are many short and thin (fibrous) roots.
- On the roots, replacement buds are visible or young shoots have already begun to grow.
A quality seedling has fibrous roots and rudiments of replacement shoots
Landing scheme and technology
It is better to grow high-quality raspberries by a bush method, according to the scheme: 150-180 cm between rows and 100 cm in a row. With this planting, each bush will receive its own portion of light, air and care. Regardless of what you cooked for raspberries: beds, trenches, or simply dug up an area with fertilizers, the planting steps will be the same.
How to plant raspberries Patricia:
- Dig a hole for the size of the root system.
- Place the seedling in the hole and straighten the roots, they should not bend or curl. The root collar can be deepened by 2–3 cm.
- Cover with fertile soil, tamping lightly. No need to trample the ground around the seedling with your feet! It should be loose.
- Form a hole and pour 7-10 liters of water into it.
- Mulch the soil, keep it always moist until young shoots and leaves appear.
If trenches and beds have not been prepared in advance, fertilizers have not been applied, then:
- dig a planting hole 50 cm deep and in diameter;
- fold the top layer (on the spade bayonet) separately from the bottom;
- mix this soil 1: 1 with humus or compost, add 1-2 tbsp. l. ash, on clay and sandy soils, increase the proportion of humus (1: 2) or add 1 part of peat (1: 1: 1);
- cover the roots of the seedling with soil mixture, make a hole, water and mulch.
Video: planting raspberries with fertilization in the planting pit
Pruning and shaping the bush
The classic pruning of raspberries is the removal of all fruiting shoots, and then young ones, so that 5-7 of the strongest annual (green) stems remain in the bushes. In the spring, the broken, frozen ones are cut out and tied to trellises. With this cultivation, berries are formed only in the upper part of the bush. To get the maximum yield, gardeners practice double pruning.
For any growing method, cut out lignified shoots immediately after harvest
Double cropping according to Sobolev:
- When young green replacement shoots grow to a height of 110–120 cm, shorten them by 10–20 cm.
- Immediately after harvest, cut out any old lignified stems.
- By autumn, young shoots will give many side branches. So they will go into the winter.
- In the spring, cut off the tops of the side branches (5-10 cm) and tie the formed shoots to the trellises. Each branch will give a branch of the next order, all of them will be covered with flowers and berries.
- At the beginning of summer, young shoots will grow again, repeat the scheme.
Video: fruiting after double pruning
When growing with double pruning, the distance between bushes in a row should be increased by 1.5–2 times, since a lush tree grows from each shoot. Or leave fewer shoots in the bushes, for example, 4 instead of 7. This is the formation. Patricia gives 6–10 replacement shoots. However, in summer and autumn, do not rush to remove healthy, but superfluous, in your opinion, young stems. Keep in mind that the part can break when bending to the ground or freeze in winter. Some will have to be cut out due to diseases and pests. Therefore, postpone thinning the bush until spring.
The above does not apply to the growth. It is removed as soon as it appears. If the sprouts have crawled out at a distance of 25-30 cm from the bush, they can be dug out with a shovel, if closer, rake the ground to a depth of 5-7 cm and cut with a pruner. Do not pull out the growth, you will damage the main root.
The shoots are not pulled out, but cut off with a pruner or chopped off with a shovel so as not to damage the mother root
Raspberries do not like stagnant water on the soil surface, but their roots require a lot of moisture. This is especially true for the large-fruited Patricia variety. With a lack of water, the berries will grow small, ugly and dry, and with an excess, they will grow watery, tasteless and rotten. During the season, you need to water 4-6 times, but not when you like, and not according to the calendar, but only during specific periods of raspberry development.
Development phases requiring a lot of water:
- intensive growth of leaves and shoots;
- flowering and ovary formation;
- ripening of berries (2 watering: at the beginning of ripening and after 10-15 days);
- after harvest;
- charging irrigation in October.
The irrigation rate for Patricia is 40-50 liters under the bush, but this is the maximum consumption. In fact, you need to take into account weather conditions and soil conditions. Not every rain is able to soak a layer of earth 50 cm, and it is to this depth that the roots of raspberries go. During the indicated times, excavate the soil between the rows. At any depth up to 50 cm, it should shrink into a non-crumbling lump. If not all layers are sufficiently moistened, for example, only the upper or lower 25 cm are dry, then watering is needed, but at a rate of half the maximum.
Water Patricia at the root: with a hose or buckets. So that a crust does not form on the ground and weeds do not grow, cover it with mulch from sawdust, hay or grass cut and yellowed in the sun. Sprinkling is excluded, since water droplets on leaves, flowers and berries are a “home” for pathogenic fungi. Raspberries have enough natural moisturizers: rain and dew.
Video: how to water raspberries
Table: fertilizers for raspberries
|When to deposit||Fertilizer and dosage||Method of application|
|At the end of the spring frost||Infusion of mullein (1:10), bird droppings (1:20) or weeds (1: 5)
In the absence of organic matter: potassium nitrate (20 g per 10 l of water)
|Pour on wet ground at the rate of 5 liters per 1m²|
|During fruiting||2 tbsp. l. double superphosphate, 2 tbsp. l. potash fertilizer without chlorine and 1 tsp. Dilute Uniflor-micro in 10 liters of water||Apply after watering 1 liter under the bush|
|In October||1-2 buckets of rotted manure or compost||Spread out under each bush in the form of mulch|
Raspberries do not like acidic soils. In addition to fertilizers, add deoxidizers twice a season: 1 glass of garden lime or dolomite flour per 10 liters of water. This volume is enough for 10 running meters of landings. Ash is a good alternative: scatter 1–2 cups under each bush on damp soil.
Fertilize raspberries with humus in the fall
Shelter for the winter
If in your area in winter the temperature drops below -30 ⁰C, then the shoots of Patricia need to be bent to the ground. To do this, after the first frost, tilt adjacent bushes to each other and connect them in an arc of such a height so that in winter it is all under the snow. In addition, you need to cover the raspberry roots with a thick layer (10-15 cm) of sawdust, fallen leaves, hay. With this technique, you will protect the roots from freezing and temperature extremes. After all, it happens that frosts come when there is still no snow, and in spring there are strong jumps in temperature: warm days are replaced by frosty nights.
Video: how to bend raspberries using boards
Table: diseases and pests of raspberry Patricia
|Disease / Pest||Symptoms||Prevention and control|
|Late blight||At different stages of development, all parts of the plant are affected. The bushes become squat, lower than others, the side branches dry up, the lower leaves turn brown. The pistils and stamens of flowers turn black, while the petals remain white. The berries grow crooked, with a dry nose, yellow-brown spots, similar to burns, are visible on ripe ones. The fibrous roots rot, the main ones remain bare with pointed ends. On the cut, they are brown or brick-colored.||
|Gray rot||The most obvious symptoms are spots on the berries, covered with gray fluff (mycelium). The disease also affects leaves and shoots, which freeze in winter.||
|Strawberry raspberry weevil||The black beetle no more than 3–4 mm in size stands out among other insects with a long proboscis on its head. At the end of June, he moves to the raspberry tree from strawberries, where he lays eggs of the first generation. For the development of the second, buds are again needed, and harvesting is already underway on the strawberries at this time. Females move on raspberries, feed on leaves, and for breeding they pierce the buds and lay eggs inside. The larvae eat up the contents, the buds crumble, the berries are not formed. In neglected orchards, the weevil can destroy 90% of the crop.||
|Raspberry beetle||This pest is the cause of wormy berries. The size of beetles is up to 5 mm, gray, black or brown body is covered with dense hairs. Females visit raspberry flowers and lay eggs on the resulting ovaries, one in each bud. The larvae that are born bite into the berries and feed on their contents.||
Photo Gallery: Pests and diseases that Patricia may suffer from
The root on the left is affected by late blight
Gray rot: ripe and already rotten berries under a fluffy coating
A female strawberry-raspberry weevil lays eggs in a bud and gnaws at its base
The body of the raspberry beetle is densely covered with hairs
The berry was eaten by a raspberry beetle larva
Harvesting and processing
Harvesting Patricia lasts a month: all July to early August. During this time, you will have to visit the raspberry grove 6-7 times to collect all the berries and leave no chances for diseases and pests. You need to pick not only ripe berries, but also rotten, dried, wormy ones (in a separate container).
Collect berries for sale, transport in dry weather, immediately after the dew melts. Raspberries, not warmed up by the sun, keep their shape better, do not sag longer. Unfolded in a shallow container, it will remain cool until evening. If you don't need to take it anywhere, you plan to eat the berry or immediately process it into winter harvesting, then harvest when it is convenient for you.
Patricia has a bright aroma and classic raspberry flavor, therefore it is suitable for making preserves, jams, marmalades, wine, liqueurs and liqueurs, liqueurs. Fresh raspberries are used to make desserts and additives, for example, to ice cream and cakes. For medicinal purposes, the fruits are dried and consumed for colds. At the same time, dry the leaves, then in winter you can pamper yourself with delicious and healthy tea.
Video: the original idea of storing grated raspberries in the freezer
Reviews of gardeners about raspberries Patricia
The variety deserves attention and space in the garden. Its clear advantages: large berries, powerful bush, high yield. At the same time, Patricia is not susceptible to most viral and fungal diseases. The emphasis in care should be on watering, fertilizing and keeping the soil in a clean and loose state.
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