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Doors For An Apartment And Their Varieties With A Description And Characteristics, As Well As Features Of The Device And Operation
Doors For An Apartment And Their Varieties With A Description And Characteristics, As Well As Features Of The Device And Operation

Video: Doors For An Apartment And Their Varieties With A Description And Characteristics, As Well As Features Of The Device And Operation

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Doors for houses and apartments: how to choose the best

Doors in the apartment
Doors in the apartment

The front door is a visiting card of any house, apartment or office. The interior of the premises is divided into corridors and rooms with interior doors. As an element of the interior, the door performs its direct functions - preservation and distribution of heat, noise insulation and control of the movement of air masses, but at the same time they carry an aesthetic load, decorate a home or place of work. The choice of doors is carried out in accordance with the purpose, the size of the rooms and the design concept.

Content

  • 1 Varieties of doors for an apartment

    • 1.1 Video: what material to choose interior doors from
    • 1.2 Video: types of interior doors
  • 2 Dimensions of doors for an apartment
  • 3 Features of the installation and operation of doors in the apartment

    • 3.1 Preparing the doorway
    • 3.2 Installing the door frame

      3.2.1 Video: Installing the door frame

    • 3.3 Canopy of the door leaf
    • 3.4 Installation of platbands
    • 3.5 Fittings installation

      3.5.1 Video: how to install an interior door yourself

    • 3.6 Door operation
  • 4 Accessories for doors in the apartment

    • 4.1 Interior doors
    • 4.2 Entrance doors
    • 4.3 Video: door fittings
  • 5 Design of doors for an apartment

    • 5.1 Photo gallery: door design in the apartment
    • 5.2 Photo Gallery: Hidden Doors
    • 5.3 Video: the choice of color, texture and combination of doors with floor and furniture
  • 6 Reviews

Varieties of doors for an apartment

Understanding and knowledge of professional terminology will help in choosing the right door and interacting with selling organizations.

Doors are classified:

  • by appointment;
  • material of manufacture;
  • opening and closing mechanism.

By purpose, the doors are divided into classes:

  • entrance - installed at the entrance to a house, apartment or office;
  • interroom - divide the interior of the building into rooms;
  • fireproof - a class of service doors designed for the evacuation of residents in an emergency;
  • sealed - doors that prevent the movement of air, smoke, water;
  • shockproof - ensure the safety of the doorway with directional mechanical impact, burglary;
  • bulletproof - high strength security doors, protected from penetration by means of small arms;
  • soundproof - prevent the penetration of noise and sound waves into the room.

According to the materials from which the doors are made, they are distinguished:

  • wooden;
  • metal;
  • glass;
  • plastic;
  • combined.

Video: what material to choose interior doors from

Depending on the device of the locking and opening mechanism, there are:

  1. Swing doors - open by pressing on one side of the sash and are attached to hinges located on the right or left vertical axis. When the opening is clockwise, the door is called "left", if against - "right".

    Swing doors
    Swing doors

    Swing type is the most common

  2. Sliding doors. The mechanism is a suspended curtain along which the canvas moves. Often used in wardrobes. Such a device saves space and resists burglary well, however, installation requires a free and flat wall, so it is unlikely that such a door can be mounted in a narrow corridor. Also, the disadvantages include low sound insulation of sliding doors.

    Sliding doors
    Sliding doors

    The absence of platbands and frames simplifies the installation of sliding doors

  3. Sliding doors. The mechanism can withstand any weight of the canvas. The bearing rails use roller bearings. Such doors are used mainly for hangars and warehouses.
  4. Pendulum doors. They "swing" on internal hinges installed in one of the sash axes. The most striking example is the doors of metro stations that open in different directions. The advantages of such doors include the absence of a support frame and high throughput, while the disadvantage is the complexity of assembly and the high cost of parts.

    Pendulum doors
    Pendulum doors

    A distinctive feature of swing doors is the ability to pass large flows of people in different directions

  5. Revolving doors are a separate type of swing doors with an axis of rotation in the middle of the leaf. They are used in large shopping and entertainment centers, administrative buildings, at checkpoints of enterprises. They are rarely used in apartments.

    Revolving doors
    Revolving doors

    The door is rotated by pressure on one of the leaves or by an electric drive

  6. Folding doors - "book" or "accordion". They save space, open easily, but when folded, partially close the doorway (by 25-30%).

    Accordion door
    Accordion door

    Assembling an accordion door requires high professionalism from the installer

  7. Louvered doors. The mechanism is similar to a slatted shutter system. The canvas consists of metal strips like roller shutters. The drive is carried out manually or mechanically. Such doors are popular with garage owners and small retail spaces. They completely open the doorway, are mobile, but have a significant drawback - a high price.

    Louvered doors
    Louvered doors

    The web rises upwards, wrapped around the rotating shaft

Each species individually can be stratified into several more subspecies.

For example, any door can be classified as one of the following types:

  • single leaf (with one door leaf);
  • bivalve (consist of two full-fledged leaves, each of which opens independently);
  • one and a half (formally they look like a double door, but at the same time one canvas is used, the second opens only when necessary).

    One and a half door
    One and a half door

    The width of the "blind" sash can be equal to or less than the width of the main leaf

The shape of the doorway is distinguished by:

  • rectangular (standard) door;
  • round door;

    Round door
    Round door

    Round doors create a unique atmosphere in the room

  • arched door;
  • a door, decorated or glazed;
  • a door with a transom (a transom with or without glass is installed in the upper part of a high doorway), etc.

    Doors with transom
    Doors with transom

    Most often, a transom is used as an additional source of natural light.

To characterize entrance and interior doors for special purposes (cash desks, server rooms, etc.), 4 strength classes are used:

  1. First class - the door cannot be broken using physical force.
  2. The second class ensures the resistance of the door to burglary using mechanical tools - a crowbar, a pry bar.
  3. The third class excludes the possibility of opening the door using electric tools (drills, grinders).
  4. The fourth - the highest strength class - assumes protection against explosion and firearms (armored doors).

    Armored doors
    Armored doors

    Armored doors are installed at the entrance to the building to ensure maximum protection

Precisely determine the configuration, properties and purpose of the door will be helped by a pre-thought project, which reflects the dimensions of the doorways, the technical characteristics of the frame and leaf, as well as the design features of the leaf finish

Video: types of interior doors

Door dimensions for an apartment

The size of the doors is determined by the dimensions of the doorway. There are three values, based on which the size of the door leaf and frame is selected.

  • height;
  • width;
  • opening depth.

    Dimensions of interior doors
    Dimensions of interior doors

    T - depth, H - height, W - width of the doorway

There are certain standards set by manufacturers. They are consistent with building codes (GOST 6629–88 dated 01.01.1989) and are suitable for most buildings under construction. According to this document, four standard sizes are used:

  1. Kitchen doors. Sash height - 200 cm, width - 70 cm, opening depth - 7.5 cm.
  2. Interior doors. Sash height - 200 cm, width - 80 cm, depth - from 7.5 to 19.5 cm.
  3. Doors to bathrooms. Sash height from 190 to 200 cm, width - 55 and 60 cm, opening depth up to 7.5 cm.
  4. Living room doors (double-leaf). The height of the canvases is 200 cm, the total width of the doors is 120 cm, the depth of the opening is from 7.5 to 19.5 cm.

When carrying out finishing work (plastering, paneling, etc.), the thickness of the opening may differ significantly from the standards. In these cases, door frames with extras are used.

If the size of the doorway does not coincide with the standard dimensions of the doors produced, the problem is solved in two ways: a door of non-standard dimensions is ordered or the dimensions of the opening are adjusted to the specified dimensions. This is achieved by building up wall partitions or enlarging the opening. In the latter case, it is necessary to consult with an experienced foreman, since in some buildings (for example, panel type) it is strictly forbidden to cut and gouge walls. This can lead to a violation of the rigidity of the supporting structures with all the ensuing consequences.

Basically, for a competent choice of a door, it is enough to correctly measure the dimensions of the doorway. This takes into account technological gaps - 25-50 mm in width on both sides and 30-50 mm in height.

Installation of interior doors
Installation of interior doors

Wiring diagram of door assembly, reflecting the dimensions of the required gaps

Features of the installation and operation of doors in the apartment

Once the door has been selected and delivered, it must be correctly installed in the wall or partition. This is a simple but crucial stage. If installed incorrectly, the service life will be significantly reduced. A randomly mounted product will spoil the overall look of the interior. Therefore, before starting the assembly, you must familiarize yourself with the installation procedure.

Preparing the doorway

Before installing the door, you must prepare the doorway. Sometimes for this you need to dismantle the old door along with the door frame. The essence of the "operation" is the complete disassembly of all parts and fasteners. First, the door leaf is removed from the hinges, then the door frame is removed using a crowbar or pry bar. If it is wooden, for convenience, cut it with a saw or an electric jigsaw across the uprights. After that, the retaining wall is cleaned of the remains of construction foam or other seals, including old plaster. During the dismantling process, the entire perimeter is leveled and additionally reinforced with cement mortar, if the wall is stone, or with boards in the case of a log or timber wall. The space around the opening is freed from furniture and debris - this will allow you to assemble the door with high quality,adjust the opening-closing process and create a comfortable working environment.

Dismantling doors
Dismantling doors

Disassembly is carried out in compliance with personal safety measures

Door frame installation

The frame is installed without a door leaf. First, pre-fixation is carried out using wooden or plastic wedges. Next, the verticality of the side struts and the horizontalness of the upper crossbar are checked. The permissible error is 1 mm at a distance of one meter. Before final fixing, the distance between the posts is checked - it must be the same. Anchoring is deepened at least 45-50 mm into the wall thickness.

Assembling the box
Assembling the box

Frame horizontal control is carried out using a hydraulic level or laser level

The free space is filled with polyurethane foam or sand-cement mortar. They proceed to the next stage after the filler has completely solidified.

Video: installing a door frame

Door leaf canopy

When installing a door leaf, first of all pay attention to the gaps between the leaf and the frame. They should be the same size on both sides. A gap of 2 to 4 mm is considered acceptable. If the hinges are adjustable, adjustment is possible, but in the vast majority of cases, non-adjustable suspension equipment is used for interior doors. Therefore, the installer's task is to accurately position the hinges. This requires certain skills - the insert is carried out using a chisel, so you need to understand the properties of wood and have a good eye. Some types of hinges (for example, internal ones) require special milling equipment for cutting technological holes.

Door leaf installation
Door leaf installation

The door leaf made of wood is equipped with hinges, which are subdivided into "left" and "right", depending on the axis of rotation of the sash

Installation of platbands

Decorative platbands are installed after finishing the walls adjacent to the door (painting, wallpapering). The skirting boards are joined to the bottom of the casing last. To date, several methods have been developed for fastening platbands. The simplest and most progressive is the locking connection with the frame. At the same time, the installer needs to carefully cut the workpiece to size and observe the assembly procedure - first, the vertical parts are installed, then the upper, closing one. For diagonal seams at the corners, carpenters use a miter box or an electric power saw. Minor inaccuracies are eliminated with a color-matched acrylic sealant.

Installation of platbands
Installation of platbands

Some types of platbands are fastened with nails or glue

Fittings installation

The final step in assembling the doors is to install the hardware. This includes a doorknob and a door lock. The front door is equipped with additional accessories - peephole, bell (or intercom) and door closer. The complexity of equipping doors with fittings depends primarily on the type and model of equipment. There are more than ten types of locks according to the principle of operation and the level of "secrecy"; the variety of door handles is also great. In each case, the installation has its own characteristics, requires the use of special tools and equipment.

Installation of door fittings
Installation of door fittings

An electric drill is used to cut a simple interior door lock.

For self-installation, it is recommended to follow the installation instructions in the manufacturer's accompanying documents.

Video: how to install an interior door yourself

Door operation

When operating doors, special attention is required to units that experience dynamic loads. The rubbing parts include, first of all, the hinges on which the sash is suspended. There can be two, three or more of them, depending on the weight of the canvas. The quality of the hinges is influenced by the material from which they are made. Steel and brass canopies are considered the best today in terms of price and quality ratio.

Good quality hinges are designed for 450-500 thousand closing-opening cycles. A decisive role in this is played by the suspension mechanism and timely lubrication of rubbing parts. If the doors creak or knock when closed when opening, you need to immediately examine the hinges and inspect the position of the door leaf. It is fraught with such symptoms to start repairing the door. After a short time, the skew of the canvas will lead to the fact that it will have to be changed. Squeaks are eliminated by lubricating the hinges, but if this does not work, it is better to contact the master. The sash alignment is carried out by adjusting the hinges, but most often the reason for the change in geometry is the "loose" fastenings of the awnings. In this case, they must be installed in a regular place and securely fastened with a self-tapping screw with a large thread pitch (wood-like). The length of the screw is selected based on the sash structure - from 2.5 to 3.5 cm (with a conical head).

Fastening door hinges
Fastening door hinges

Do not use a high-speed electric drill to tighten the screws.

To maintain the leaf and door frame in working order, it is necessary to clean it from dust at least once a month. The door is wiped twice: once with a damp cloth, the second time with a dry one. Only wooden (plastic, glass, etc.) parts can be washed. Locks and hinges are only wiped from the outside and lubricated from the inside.

It is forbidden to use for washing:

  • detergents containing abrasive particles;
  • strong chemicals - gasoline, solvents based on acetone, alkali and acid;
  • hard-bristled brushes, graters, scrapers, etc.

If chips or scratches occur, it is recommended to use acrylic fillers. To restore damage, a layer of putty is applied in excess. Then the excess is removed with a rubber or plastic spatula. After the composition has dried, the residues are washed off with warm water.

Wood door putty
Wood door putty

The amount of putty is determined by the extent of damage to the door leaf

Putties are sold both in small tubes and in large tubes, from which they are squeezed out with a special "pistol". If it is not possible to select the putty by color, a white paste is used, followed by tint of the repaired place.

For the restoration of laminated doors, a special repair foil is available for sale. You just need to choose the color and texture of the coating. One side of the film is covered with glue, which makes the task much easier.

Accessories for doors in the apartment

To avoid confusion, you need to clearly distinguish between the complete set and the components, as the door hardware is sometimes called. The complete set of doors, according to the inventory in the technical passport, includes:

  • door leaf;
  • door frame;
  • a set of hinges and fasteners (screws and anchor dowels);
  • platbands.

This is the minimum required kit for installing doors. Different companies list various additional parts, sometimes even free on-site installation. But more often the client is offered to choose the fittings on his own, taking into account his personal artistic preferences.

Fittings include:

  • door knob;

    Doorknobs
    Doorknobs

    Depending on the design of the handle, the installation scheme changes

  • door lock;

    Door lock
    Door lock

    There are mortise, overhead and padlocks for doors

  • latch;

    Door bolt
    Door bolt

    The specification of the bolt is indicated in the technical data sheet of the product

  • peephole;

    Peephole
    Peephole

    The door viewer consists of an optical lens in a metal housing

  • closer;

    Door closer
    Door closer

    The closer is based on a powerful spring with a pusher

  • ventilation grill.

    Door ventilation grill
    Door ventilation grill

    The ventilation grill is fixed at the bottom of the door leaf

Interior doors

In the standard version, interior doors are equipped with handles, latches and ventilation grilles. Eyes, closers and locks are installed on the entrance doors.

When choosing accessories, you should pay attention not only to the price and appearance of the product, but also to the quality of the materials from which they are made. So, in the lock, a metal tongue with an elastic return spring is preferable. You can check this by pressing the tab with your finger - in a quality product, the spring will push it out quickly and easily. Door latches made of metal (steel, aluminum) last longer than plastic ones. The stroke of the locking rod must be smooth, without effort, and the fixation must be comfortable and reliable.

Door lock device
Door lock device

The leveler castle is considered one of the most reliable

There are no strict rules regarding ventilation grilles that cut into the lower part of the canvas. However, preference should be given to a frame made of hard plastic, preferably with manual adjustment of the ventilation opening. Metal grilles do not hold well on hollow doors with honeycomb filling. This must be taken into account, especially when selecting doors for bathrooms. In addition, the metal does not tolerate high humidity.

Entrance doors

Today, in the era of electronics, it is less and less common to install optical door eyes. Electronic "observers" with a microscopic camera instead of an eyepiece are very popular. The image is displayed on the phone or offline display. Unfortunately, when buying, they do not always pay attention to the resolution characteristics of the camera and monitor. The result is a small viewing angle and a blurry image. The segment of visual contact is considered optimal in the range of 160-180 o… At lower resolutions, "dead zones" appear. In terms of increasing safety, "eyes" operating in night vision mode are of interest, but their price is much higher. One of the disadvantages of the electronic "observer" is the dependence on power supply, however, advanced models are equipped with high-capacity batteries and a lifetime without recharging.

Electronic door peephole
Electronic door peephole

When buying an electronic eye, you need to find out its compatibility with other gadgets.

When choosing a closer, the main focus is on the length of the lever stroke and the developed force. They are selected in accordance with the weight and overall dimensions of the door. When installing armored doors, the installation company offers its proven options based on practice and "run-in" calculations. It is problematic to independently calculate the closer parameters, since it is difficult to take into account all the nuances - the number and mechanism of the hinges, the weight of the leaf, the dimensions of the doors, the type of locking device - without testing. When installing the equipment, the installer issues a warranty and a post-warranty service agreement.

Video: hardware for doors

Apartment door design

The type of interior depends on many factors - the arrangement of furniture, the color and texture of the wall decoration, flooring, etc. Play an important role in the design of the living space and doors. With their help, you can emphasize the beneficial sides of the room - the size, style and color of the finish. But at the same time, the door can "merge with the landscape", become a natural extension of the wall, and be invisible. It all depends on the design solution and style of decoration. More often, doors of the same dimensions are installed, maintained in a monotonous manner. But the opposite is also practiced - doors of different heights and widths also participate in creating the desired atmosphere.

Photo gallery: apartment door design

Living room doors
Living room doors

Sliding doors in the living room expand the space of the hall

Doors in the bedroom
Doors in the bedroom

Doors merge with the wall if they continue the mural

Living room
Living room

Wooden classic doors fit organically into a respectable interior

The door to the dining room
The door to the dining room

Installing a glass door creates the illusion of space

Combined doors
Combined doors

The absence of platbands in sliding doors shifts the emphasis towards furniture

There are alternative solutions, for example, hidden doors, devoid of platbands and height to the ceiling. In small areas, the light tones of the walls and the presence of a large amount of reflected light conceal the lack of space.

Photo gallery: hidden doors

Hidden doors
Hidden doors

The hidden door is not framed by platbands and has internal hinges

Invisible doors
Invisible doors

Hidden doors in the understairs space allow you to organize your wardrobe

High doors
High doors

Floor-to-ceiling door visually enlarges the space

Video: the choice of color, texture and combination of doors with floor and furniture

Modern finishing technologies offer a huge selection of materials with which the maximum effect is achieved when solving design problems. In addition to paints and varnishes of all colors and shades, they include veneer and laminate film. The variety of colors and textures can satisfy the needs of the most scrupulous customer.

Types of laminated doors
Types of laminated doors

The structure of PVC doors allows you to create any texture and color of the leaf

Space constraint problems are solved by installing glass and mirrored doors.

Mirror door covering
Mirror door covering

The mirrored door in the hallway is comfortable and doubles the size of the corridor

Reviews

A huge variety of types and types of doors opens up scope for various functional and design solutions, but relying only on feelings and artistic taste is not always productive. Theoretical acquaintance with the properties of materials and door mechanisms will allow avoiding alterations and annoying mistakes in choosing “your”, the best option.

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